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托福考试词汇向导( 之五)

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Unit 21

orientation n.适应(环境);指导 [app<ORIENT]

orifice n.口;孔;洞 [F<LL orificium<os oris mouth+facere make]

orison n.祈祷 [ME<AF ureison, OF oreison<L(ORATION演说;致词;叙述法)]

ornate a.装饰华丽的 [ME<L ornatus pp. of ornare adorn]

orotund a.宏亮的;夸张的 [L ore rotundo with rounded mouth]

orphan n.a.v.孤儿;使成孤儿

oscillate v.游移不定;踌躇 [L oscillare oscillat- swing]

ossify v.骨化 [F ossifier<L os ossis bone]

ostensible a.表面的;假装的 [F<medL ostensibilis<L ostendere ostens- stretch out to view(OB-, tendere stretch)]

ostracize v.摒弃;排斥 [Gk ostrakizo<ostrakon shell, potsherd(used to write a name on in voting)]

otiose a.无效的;多余的 [L otiosus<otium leisure]

outbid v.出高于...的价钱

outgoing a.外出的;出发的

outlandish a.古怪的 [OE utlendisc<utland foreign country<OUT+LAND]

outrage n.v.粗暴;暴力;伤害 [ME<OF outrage<outrer exceed<outre<L ultra beyond outrageous粗暴的;无礼的]

ovation n.热烈欢迎;鼓掌;大受欢迎 [L ovatio<ovare exult]

overhaul v.分解检查;精细检查 [orig Naut, = release(rope-tackle)by slackening slacken 放松<away, off>]

overlap v.重复

overshadow v.遮阴;使失色;胜过 [E ofersceadwian(OVER-, SHADOW)]

overweening a.过分的;自负的

overwhelm v.淹没;受打击

overwrought a.过度紧张 [overwork的过去式过去分词]

ovine a.绵羊的;似绵羊的 [LL ovinus<L ovis sheep]

pacifist n.非战主义者

paean n.赞美歌;欢乐歌 [L<Doric Gk paian hymn of thanksgiving to Apollo(under the name of Paian)]

pagan n.异教徒 [ME<L paganus villager, rustic<pagus country district: in Christian L = civilian, heathen paganism 异教];[ 异教信仰;偶像崇拜

pageant n.盛会;游行;露天历史剧 [ME pagyn, the ~ of historical events 一连串引人注目的历史事件(<L."舞台")]

pal n.伙伴;共犯 [Romany = brother, mate, ult<Skr bhratr BROTHER]

palatable a.怡人的;味美的 [palate上颚;味觉;趣味,嗜好ME<L palatum]

palatial a.壮丽堂皇的 [L(PALACE)]

palaver a.空谈;闲谈;奉承 [Port palavra word<L(PARABLE寓言;比喻,譬语(<G."比较")]

palette n.调色盘 [F, dimin of pale shovel<L pala spade]

pall v.使生厌 [The novelty will soon ~ on them 那种新奇不久就会使他们感到厌倦 APPAL吓唬,使惊骇 The sight] [~ed me 那景象使我心惊胆战]

palladium n.智慧女神之像;保障物 [ME<L<Gk palladion image of Pallas(Athene), a protecting deity]

pallet n.简陋的小床 [F palette: PALETTE 调色板 (盘) ;(一套的)颜料(画家、绘画的)色彩范围 (种类)]

palliate v.减轻;缓和(病、痛等) [LL palliare to cloak<pallium cloak palliation(过失的)减轻 辩解;缓和的办法,姑息手段]

pallid a.苍白的;呆板的 [L pallidus PALE]

pallor n.(脸色)苍白;青白;灰白 [L<pallere be pale;a deathly ~ 死人般的苍白]

palpable a.易察觉的;可触知的 [ME<LL palpabilis(PALPATE(医)触诊]

palpitate v.急速地跳动;抖动 [L palpitare frequent of palpare touch gently]

paltry a.微不足道的 [16th c:<paltry trash app<palt, pelt rubbish+-RY(cf trumpery): cf LG paltrig ragged]

pamphlet n.小册子;时事论文小册子 [ME<Pamphilet, the familiar name of the 12th-c Latin love poem Pamphilus seu de Amore]

pan n.平锅;药室;盘状的洼地 [Hindi<Skr parna feather, leaf]

panacea n.万灵药 [L<Gk panakeia<panakes all-healing(PAN-, akos remedy)]

pandemonium n.喧嚣;骚乱 [modL(place of all demons in Milton’s Paradise Lost)<PAN-+Gk daimon DEMON 希腊神话中介于神]人[ 之间的恶魔(<L."恶鬼")

pander v.为淫媒;迎合 [Pandare, a character in Boccaccio and in Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde,<L Pandarus<Gk Pandaros]

panegyric n.颂词;褒词 [F panegyrique<L panegyricus<Gk panegurikos of public assembly(PAN-, eguris = agora assembly)]

panic n.惊慌;恐慌;非常有趣的人 [OE<L panicum<panus thread on bobbin, millet-ear<Gk penos web 蜘蛛网(cobweb)设计的圈套,阴谋,] [阱(of)]

panoply n.全副盔甲 [F panoplie or modL panoplia full armour<Gk(PAN-, oplia<hopla arms)]

panorama n.全景;范围 [PAN-+Gk horama view<horao see]

pantheism n.宇宙即神论;多神崇拜 [PAN-+Gk theos god]

pantomime n.哑剧;手势 [F pantomime or L pantomimus<Gk pantomimos(PANTO-, MIME哑剧)]

par n.同等;票面价格;平均量 [L(adj & n)= equal, equality]

parable n.寓言;警语 [ME<OF parabole<LL sense ’allegory, discourse’ of L parabola comparison]

paradigm n.典范;词之变化例 [LL paradigma<Gk paradeigma<paradeiknumi show side by side(PARA-, deiknumi show)paradigmatic ]模 [的,例证的;词形变化(表)的]

paradox n.似非而是的隽语 [<Gk paradoxon neut adj(PARA-旁边, doxa opinion)]

paragon n.模范;优秀的人物 [obs F<It paragone touchstone,<medGk parakone whetstone]

parallel a.平行;相似 [F parall e<L parallelus<Gk parallelos(PARA-, allelos one another)]

paramount a.最高的;至上的;主要的 [AF paramont<OF par by+amont above: cf AMOUNT]

paramour n.奸夫(妇);情夫(妇) [ME<OF par amour by love]

paranoia n.偏执狂;妄想狂 [modL<Gk<paranoos distracted(PARA-旁边, noos mind)]

paraphernalia n.装备;随身用品 [rig = property owned by a married woman,<medL paraphernalia<LL parapherna<Gk parapherna property apart] [from a dowry(PARA-, pherna f]

paraphrase v.意译;改写 [F paraphrase or L paraphrasis<Gk paraphrasis<paraphrazo(PARA- phrazo tell)]

parasite n.寄生虫;寄生植物 [PARA-, sitos food parasitic 寄食的,靠别人为生的 nit 虱及其他寄生虫的卵]

parch v.使焦干 [ME perch, parche, PARCHED<地面等>干透的,焦干的 The ground was ~ 地面干透了]

paregoric n.止痛药;缓和剂 [LL paregoricus<Gk paregorikos soothing(PARA-, -agoros speaking<agora assembly)pare(用刀子)削<] [果、马铃薯等>的皮]

pariah n.被社会遗弃者 [Tamil paraiyar pl of paraiyan hereditary drummer<parai drum]

parity n.相同;类似 [formed as -PAROUS + -ITY]

parlance n.说法;语调 [OF<parler speak, ult<L parabola(see PARABLE): in LL = ’speech’ way or manner of talking or speaking]

parley n.谈判

[perh<OF parlee, fem pp. of parler speak: PARLANCE说话的口气;语调;(特有的)说法 in legal ~ 用法 律用语来说

parlous a.危险的;麻烦的 [ME, = PERILOUS危险的]

parody n.打油诗;讽刺诗;拙劣模仿 [LL parodia or Gk paroidia burlesque poem(PARA- 表示"侧"、]

paroxysm n.猛然发作;阵发 [<Gk paroxusmos<paroxuno exasperate(PARA-, oxuno sharpen<oxus sharp)]

parricide n.轼父母、长上者;轼尊罪 [assoc in L with pater father and parens parent]

parry v.挡开;躲开 [prob repr F parez imper of parer<It parare ward off躲开]

parsimonious a.吝啬的 [parsimony 极度的节俭;吝啬]

partiality n.偏见;偏爱 [ME<OF parcialite<medL partialitas(PARTIAL)]

partisan n.同党;游击队 [F<It dial partigiano etc<parte PART]

partition n.分割;划分;隔板 [ME<OF<L partitio -onis(PARTITE分裂的)]

parvenu n.暴发户 [F, pp. of parvenir arrive<L pervenire(PER-, venire come)]

passive a.被动的;消极的 [ME<OF passif -ive or L passivus(PASSION)]

pastiche n.模仿作品 [F<It pasticcio ult<LL pasta PASTE]

pastoral a.田园的;宁静的 [ME<L pastoralis(PASTOR)]

pasture n.v.牧场;草地;放牧;吃草

patch n.补丁;一小片(土地) [ME pacche, patche, perh var of peche<OF pieche dial var of piece PIECE]

patchwork n.补缀品;凑合物

patent a.专利权 [ME<OF patent and L patere lie open PATENCY 明白;开放;明显的事]

paternal a.父亲的;得自父亲的

pathetic a.悲惨的;引人怜悯的 [F pathetique<LL patheticus<Gk pathetikos(PATHOS伤感;悲伤)]

pathological a.病理学的;病理上的 [pathology病理学,病理;病状 F pathologie or modL pathologia(PATHO-, -LOGY)]

pathos n.哀婉动人的性质 [Gk pathos suffering, rel to paskho suffer, penthos grief]

patina n.古铜上所生绿锈 [It<L patina dish]

patio n.庭院;平台 [(<西班牙语) ((pl ~s) (西班牙式房屋的) 内院,中庭 (inner court)]

patois n.方言;土语 [F, = rough speech, perh<OF patoier treat roughly<patte paw]

patriarch n.家长;族长

[ME<OF patriarche<ecclL patriarcha<Gk patriarkhes<patria family<pater father+-arkhes -ruler patriarchy家 长(族长)统治;父权制

patrimony n.继承之事物;遗产 [ME patrimoigne<OF patrimoine<L patrimonium<pater patris father]

patronage n.保护;奖励;照顾 [ME<OF(PATRON保护人;顾客)]

paucity n.稀少;缺乏 [ME<OF paucite or<L paucitas<paucus few]

pawn n.典当;抵押;人质;兵;走卒 [pawnbroker典当商]

peak n.峰;绝顶;鸭舌帽 [peaky有峰的;尖的;消瘦的]

peculate v.侵占;盗用 [L peculari rel to peculium: PECULIAR奇特的;罕见的;特殊的]

pecuniary a.金钱的;金钱上的 [L pecuniarius<pecunia money<pecu cattle]

pedagogue n.教师(常含蔑视之意) [ME<L paedagogus<Gk paidagogos<pais paidos boy+agogos guide]

pedant n.迂儒;拘泥形式的人 [F pedant<It pedante: app formed as PEDAGOGUE pedantry假装学者;卖弄学问;炫学]

pedestal n.雕像等的台架;基础 [F piedestal<It piedestallo<pi foot<L pes pedis+di of+stallo STALL货摊;停顿 PEDDLE沿街叫卖]

pedestrian a.徒步的;散文体的;通俗的 [pedestre or L pedester -tris]

pediatrician n.小儿科医师

pediment n.山形墙;三角墙 [earlier pedament, periment, perh corrupt of PYRAMID(常 P~)金字塔 2(数学)角锥]

peek v.偷看;窥见 [ME pike, pyke, steal a ~ 偷看]

peer n.贵族;上院议员;同辈 [ME<AF & OF pe(e)r, perer<LL pariare<L par equal]

pejorative a.侮蔑的 [F pejoratif -ive<LL pejorare make worse(pejorate 使恶化;使变坏 变坏;恶化]

pelf n.金钱;不义之财 [ME<ONF<OF pelfre, peufre spoils: cf PILFER盗窃]

pell-mell ad.混乱地;纷乱地 [F p e-m e, OF pesle mesle, mesle pesle, etc, redupl of mesle<mesler mix]

pellucid a.清澈明晰的;易懂的 [L pellucidus<perlucere(PER-, lucere shine)]

pelt v.毛皮 [ME<obs pellet skin ~ a person with stones = ~ stones at a person 对某人投掷石头 The rain ~ed against the] [window 雨猛烈地打 在窗子上]

penalize v.处刑;宣告有罪;处罚 [pen 雌鹄;监禁]

penance n.(赎罪的)惩罪;告解 [ME<OF<L paenitentia(PENITENT忏悔的;悔罪者)]

penchant n.倾向;爱好 [F, pres part of pencher incline]

pendant a.垂饰 [ME<OF<pendre hang<L pendere]

pendent a.悬垂的;突出的;未定的 [ME(PENDANT)]

pending a.未定的;即将发生的 [after F pendant(see PENDENT)]

pendulous a.下垂的;摆动的 [L pendulus<pendere hang]

penetrate v.穿过;穿透;看透 [L penetrare place or enter within<penitus interior penetrating 渗透的;贯通的;锐利的;有洞察力的 This is] [a ~ analysis of the situation]

penitent a.后悔的 [ME<OF<L paenitens<paenitere repent后悔]

pension n.年奉;养老金;生活津贴 [F: PENSION]

pensive a.沉思的;忧郁的 [ME<OF pensif, -ive<penser think<L pensare frequent of pendere pens- weigh]

penurious a.吝啬的;贫穷的 [medL penuriosus(PENURY贫困;贫穷ME<L penuria, perh rel to paene almost)]

peonage n.劳役偿债;劳役偿债制度 [peon (中南美)工人,散工,日工]

perceive v.知觉;感知;理会 [ME<OF per ivre,<L percipere(PER-, capere take)]

perception n.知觉;认知;理解;知觉力 [E<L perceptio(PERCEIVE)perceptible 认得出的;可知觉的;看得见的;相当的]

percolate v.过滤;渗出;浸透

[L percolare(PER-全部, colare strain紧张;拉紧<colum strainer松紧扣;过滤器)I’ll ~ some coffee for you 我给你滤煮一些咖啡

percussion n.冲撞;敲击 [F percussion or L percussio(PERCUSS扣诊)repercussion 弹回;反应;影响 I am afraid that this event will] [have serious ~s]

peremptory a.专横的 [AF peremptorie, OF peremptoire<L peremptorius deadly, decisive,<perimere perempt- destroy, cut off(PER-,] [emere take, buy)]

perennial a.长久的;永远的 [L perennis(PER-, annus year)]

perfectionist n.力求完美者;吹毛求疵者

perfidy n.背信;不诚实 [L perfidia<perfidus treacherous(PER-, fidus<fides faith)perfidious不诚实的;背信的]

perforate v.穿孔;贯穿;打孔 [L perforare(PER-, forare pierce) perforat n.钻孔]

perforce a.必需地;必然地 [ME<OF par force by FORCE]

perfume n.芳香;香味;香水 [F parfum, parfumer<obs It parfumare, perfumare(PER-, fumare smoke, FUME): orig of smoke from a burning] [substance]

perfunctory a.表面的;敷衍了事的 [LL perfunctorius careless<L perfungi perfunct-(PER-, fungi perform)]

perigee n.近地点 [F perigee<modL<Gk perigeion round the earth(PERI-周围, ge earth)]

perilous a.危险的 [ME<OF perillous<L periculosus<periculum: PERIL 危险;冒险;危难(ME<OF<L periclum at one’s ~ ]冒险)

perimeter n.周围;周长 [F perim re or<L perimetrus<Gk perimetros(PERI-, metros<metron measure)]

period a.时代;句号;休止符 [ME<OF periode<L periodus<Gk periodos(PERI-, odos = hodos way)]

peripatetic a.走来走去的;消遥学派的 [ME<OF peripatetique or L peripateticus<Gk peripatetikos<peripateo(PERI-, pateo walk)]

peripheral a.周围的;外面的;枝节的 [PARIPHERY 外围;不重要的部分(PERI-, phereia<phero bear)]

perjury n.伪证;伪证罪 [ME<AF perjurie<OF parjurie<L perjurium(PERJURE使伪誓(证);使破坏誓言 PER-表面, jurare swear)]

permeate v.渗透;透过 [L permeare permeat-(PER-, meare pass, go)permeable有浸透性的;能透过的]

pernicious a.有害的;致命的

[L perniciosus<pernicies ruin<nex necis death ~ anemia 恶性贫血 thoughts ~ to society 对社会有害的 思想

peroration n.(演说等之)结论;总结 [perorate 对演说下结论,结束演说 详述,滔滔不绝地演讲]

perpendicular a.成直角的;险峻的 [E<L perpendicularis<perpendiculum plumb-line<PER-+pendere hang]

perpetrate v.犯罪;行诈 [L perpetrare perpetrat-(PER-, patrare effect)~ a swindle 行欺诈 ~ a joke(不看场合地)乱开玩笑]

perpetual a.永久的;不间断的 [ME<OF perpetuel<L perpetualis<perpetuus<perpes -etis continuous perpetuate 使永存;使不朽]

perplexity n.困惑;混乱;困窘的事物 [E<OF perplexite or LL perplexitas(PERPLEX) in ~ 困惑地 perplexed 困窘的;不知如何是好的;混乱]的.

Unit 22

perquisite n.额外补贴;犒赏 [ME<medL perquisitum<L perquirere search diligently for(PER-, quaerere seek)]

persecute v.以异端等为由的迫害 [ME<OF persecuter back-form<persecuteur persecutor<LL persecutor<L persequi(PER-, sequi secut- follow,] [pursue)persecution迫害,逼迫;困扰]

persevere v.坚忍;固执;不屈不挠 [ME<OF perseverer<L perseverare persist<perseverus very strict(PER-, severus severe)]

persiflage n.戏弄;挖苦 [F persifler banter, formed as PER-+siffler whistle]

persistent a.固执的;顽固的;永恒的

personable a.貌美的;动人的

personalities n.pl.诽谤 [单数时为"性格,个性"之意]

perspective n.透视;远景 [ME<medL perspectiva(ars art)<perspicere perspect-(PER-, specere spect- look)]

perspiration n.出汗;卖力到流汗的程度 [PERSPIRE流汗(<L."穿透而呼吸")]

pert a.大胆的;时髦的;俏丽的 [ME<OF apert<L apertus pp. of aperire open &<OF aspert<L expertus EXPERT]

pertinacious a.顽强的;持久的 [L pertinax(PER-, tenax tenacious)]

perturb v.使烦恼;搅乱 [ME<OF pertourber<L(PER-, turbare disturb)]

pervade v.遍布;弥漫 [L pervadere(PER-, vadere vas- go)pervasive普遍的;蔓延的;渗透的]

perverse a.刚愎的;乖张的;倔强的

[ME<OF pervers perverse<L perversus(PERVERT 误解;滥用;引入邪路,带坏 perversive 导入邪恶的, 败坏的,误人的 曲解的,偏颇的,枉曲的

perversion n.颠倒;曲解;误用 [E<L perversio(PERVERT)perversity 邪恶;刚愎,固执,倔强;乖张,荒谬]

pervert v.脱离;曲解;导向邪路 [ME<OF pervertir or<L pervertere(PER-, vertere vers- turn): cf CONVERT]

pervious a.可渗透的;可通过的 [L pervius(PER-, vius<via way)]

pessimism n.悲观;悲观主义 [L pessimus worst, after OPTIMISM]

pester v.使困恼 [prob<impester<F empestrer encumber: infl by PEST]

pestilential a.引起瘟疫的;有害的 [ME<medL pestilentialis<L pestilentia(PESTILENT致命的;传染性的;有害的pestis plague)pest疡疫;] [虫;讨厌的流行病 pesticide杀虫剂]

petition n.请愿;祈求;陈请书 [ME<OF<L petitio -onis PETITIONER请愿人]

petrify v.使吓呆;使石化 [<L petra rock石头<Gk(petrifaction石化;化石;茫然若失 ETRIFY after stupefaction麻醉;昏睡;] [然)(petrology岩石学)]

pettifogger n.卑劣之律师;小题大作者 [PETTY+fogger underhand dealer, prob<Fugger family of merchants in Augsburg in the 15th-16th c]

pettish a.易怒的;闹情绪的 [PET+-ISH]

petulant a.暴躁的 [F petulant<L petulans -antis<petere seek]

phantom n.幽灵;错觉 [ME<OF fantosme ult<Gk phantasma(PHANTASM幻像;幽灵)phantasmal,-tasmic幻影的;幽灵的;空想的]

pharisaical a.重虚礼的;伪善的 [Pharisee 法利赛人,法利赛教派之教徒(古犹太教注重律法形式而墨守成规之保守派成员)(p~)(宗教] [之)形式主义者;伪善者]

philander v.不真诚地恋爱;调戏女子 [philander(n)used in Gk literature as the proper name of a lover,<Gk philandros fond of men<aner male person:] [PHIL-]

philately n.集邮 [F philatelie<Gk ateleia exemption from payment<a- not+telos toll代价, tax philatelist集邮 (邮票研究) 家]

philistine n.残忍的敌人;庸俗的 [(古代居住于巴勒斯坦(Palestine)西南部之一好战 民族,曾攻击以色列人多次)]

philogyny n.爱女人 [(反)misogyny]

philology n.语言学 [F philologie<L philologia love of learning<Gk(PHILO-, -LOGY)]

phlegmatic a.冷静的;迟钝的;粘液质的 [a ~ temperament 粘液质 PHLEGM痰]

phobia n.恐惧症;畏惧 [-PHOBIA used as a separate word]

phoenix n.长生鸟;凤凰;卓越超群者 [OE & OF fenix<L phoenix<Gk phoinix Phoenician, purple, phoenix]

phony a.膺品

phrase n.片语;警句;措辞 [earlier phrasis<L<Gk<phrazo declare, tell]

physiognomy n.相貌;外貌 [<Gk phusiognomonia judging of a man’s nature(by his features)(PHYSIO-, gnomon judge)]

physiological a.生理学的;生理的

picayune n.小钱币;琐屑的东西 [F picaillon Piedmontese coin, cash,<Prov picaioun]

pied a.杂色的;斑驳的 [ME<PIE, orig of friar(天主教)修道士(<L."兄弟")friable 易碎的,脆弱的]

pier n.码头;桥脚;角柱 [ME per<AL pera]

pierce v.刺穿;冲入;看穿 [ME<OF percer<L pertundere bore through(PER-, tundere tus- thrust)piercing 刺穿的;贯穿的;深深感动的] [The ~ sound of the police siren]

piety n.虔诚;信仰;孝行 [ME<OF piete<L pietas -tatis dutifulness(PIOUS虔诚的)]

pillage v.抢劫;掠夺 [ME<OF<piller plunder 掠夺,抢劫<人、地方等>~ a village 抢劫村庄]

pinch v.捏;使缺乏;逮补 [ME<AF & ONF pinchier(unrecorded), OF pincier, ult<L pungere punct- prick pincers pl钳子;夹子;镊子];[ 拔毛器

pinion v.束缚 [F pignon alt<obs pignol<L pinea pine-cone(PINE)]

pinnacle n.尖峰;顶点 [ME pinacle<OF pin(n)acle<LL pinnaculum<pinna wing, point(PIN, -CULE)]

pious a.虔诚的 [L pius dutiful, pious]

piquant a.辛辣的;够刺激的

[F, pres part of piquer(PIQUE(尤指自尊心受损的)生气,不高兴,不悦;使生气,使愤慨 使兴奋;引起好 心]

pique v.生气;激怒;使兴奋

[I was ~d by her refusal 她的拒绝使我生气 His curiosity was ~d by the locked box 那个上了锁的箱子 引起他的好奇心 be in a(fit of)~ 在生气,在赌气

pirate n.海盗;著作权侵害者 [ME<L pirata<Gk peirates<peirao attempt, assault piracy海盗行为;剽窃;著作权侵害]

pirouette n.v.脚尖旋转 [F, = spinning-top]

piscatorial a.鱼的;渔业的;钓鱼的

pitch v.柏油;音调 [OE pic<Gmc<L pix picis]

pitfall n.陷阱;诱惑;阴谋

pith n.脊髓;精力;精髓 [OE pitha<WG]

pithy a.(说话或文章)简练的

pittance n.微薄的薪俸;少量 [ME<OF pitance<medL pi(e)tantia<L pietas PITY]

pivot n.枢纽;中心;旋转 [F, of uncert orig]

placate v.安慰;和解 [L placare placat-]

placid a.平静的 [F placide or L placidus<placere please (反)turbid]

plagiarism n.剽窃;抄袭 [plagiarize 剽窃,抄袭]

plague n.疫病 [ME<L plaga stroke, wound prob<Gk plaga, plege -plegia(用于复合字中)(医)表"麻痹,瘫痪" 义],[如:paraplegia(病理)下身麻痹,截瘫]

plaintive a.哀愁的 [ME<OF(-if, -ive)<plainte(PLAINT哀叹;诉苦)]

plait n.褶;麦秆条带;编绳 [ME<OF pleit fold ult<L plicare fold plait (常 ~s)(头发的)辫子(braid)hair braided in ~s 编成辫子的头发] [(pleat)]

plane n.水平面;程度;平坦的 [ME<OF<L platanus<Gk platanos<platus broad]

plangent a.回音的;如泣如诉的 [L plangere plangent- lament悔恨;悲叹]

plaque n.(金属;陶磁器等的)匾 [F<Du plak tablet<plakken stick]

plash v.激溅 [ME<OF pla(i)ssier ult<L plectere plait: cf PLEACH]

plastic a.塑料 [F plastique or L plasticus<Gk plastikos<plasso mould]

plateau n.高原;高地;饰匾;顶板 [F<OF platel dimin of plat flat surface. platform n.台;坛;纲领;纲领宣言.v.设台;放在台上;演说 F] [plateforme ground-plan <plate flat + forme FORM]

platonic a.精神的;柏拉图式的 [Plato(427?-?347 BC;希腊哲学家,为苏格拉底(Socrates)的弟子,亚里斯多德(Aristotle)的老师)]

plauditory a.可嘉许的;赞扬的

plausible a.似合理的;似可靠的 [L plausibilis(PLAUDIT(常 ~s)喝彩,拍手,称赞]

plead v.辩论;抗辩;解释 [ME<AF pleder, OF plaidier(PLEA恳求;辩护)]

plebeian a.普通的;平民的 [L plebeius<plebs plebis the common people]

plebiscite n.公民投票 [<L plebiscitum<plebs plebis the common people+scitum decree<sciscere vote for]

plenary a.充分的;完全的 [LL plenarius<plenus full]

plethora n.过多;过剩 [LL<Gk plethore<pletho be full]

pliable a.易弯的;柔韧的 [F<plier bend: PLY弯;折;辛勤工作 pliers钳子 pliant易曲折的;柔软的;柔顺的;顺从的]

plod v.沉重地走;辛勤工作 [The old man ~ded along on his way 那个老人吃力 地走着 ~ through a task 勤苦地做完工作 He plodded] [away at his lessons 他孜孜不倦地用功]

plow v.耕作;大熊座

[be at (follow, hold) the plow 以农为业,务农 put one’s hand to the plow 开始工作 under the plow<土 地>耕种中,在耕作下

ploy n.职业;远征;花招

pluck v.摘;拉

[OE ploccian, pluccian ~ out a grey hair 拔出一根白发 ~ up weeds 拔去杂草 May I ~ some of these flowers?] 这些花我可以摘 一些吗? plucky 有勇气的

plumb v.铅锤测定 [back-form<PLUMBER(瓦斯管、蒸气管、上下水道的)配管工,水管工]

plume n.羽毛;前饰;搔首弄姿 [ME<OF<L pluma down]

plump a.肥胖的;清楚的;噗通地落 [How your cheeks have ~ed up (out) ! 你的脸颊变得多麽丰满啊! ~ overboard 从船上噗通地掉落水中 ~] [into a chair 噗通一声地坐在椅子上]

plunder v.抢夺 [LG pl dern lit ’rob of household goods’<MHG plunder clothing etc]

ply v.使用 [ME plye,<APPLY]

podium n.作基础用之矮墙;指挥台 [L<Gk podion dimin of pous pod- foot]

pogrom n.大屠杀;集体迫害 [Russ, = devastation<gromit’ destroy(<苏联语"破坏")(尤指)对犹太人的屠杀]

poignant a.痛切的;浓厚的;辛辣的 [ME<OF, pres part of poindre prick<L pungere(<L."刺")~ regret 痛悔 poignancy 剧烈;强烈;刻薄;辛辣]

pointer n.指示的人;暗示;一种猎狗

poise v.使均衡;秤;泰然自弱 [J L M Poiseuille, Fr physician d 1869]

poke v.戳;插入;拨开;探索;闲逛 [ME<ONF poke, poque = OF poche: cf POUCH(皮革制的)小袋,烟草袋(袋鼠等有袋类的)囊状部,腹袋]

polarity n.有两极;磁性引力;两极性 [polarization产生极性;成极(作用);分极(作用)]

polemic n.争论;辩驳 [medL polemicus<Gk polemikos<polemos war]

polish v.上光剂 [ME<OF polir<L polire polit-]

politic a.有智虑的;得当的 [ME<OF politique<L politicus<Gk politikos<polites citizen<polis city]

polity n.政府制度 [L politia<Gk politeia<polites citizen<polis city]

pollster n.民意测验专家 [poll(<中古荷兰语"头")(选举等的)投票 pollard 截去了树梢的树 无角 (去角) 的鹿 (牛(等)) pollbook] [选举人名册]

poltroon n.胆怯者;懦夫 [F poltron<It poltrone perh<poltro sluggard懒人,游手好闲者]

polyglot a.通晓数种语言的 [F polyglotte<Gk poluglottos(POLY-, glotta tongue)]

polygraph n.多动描记器;测谎器

pommel v.殴打 [ME<OF pomel<Rmc pomellum(unrecorded), dimin of L pomum fruit, apple]

pomp n.华丽;盛典;华丽的游行 [ME<OF pompe<L pompa<Gk pompe procession, pomp<pempo send(<G."严肃的队伍")]

ponder v.仔细考虑;沉思 [ME<OF ponderer<L ponderare<pondus -eris weight]

ponderous a.非常重的;搬运不便的 [ME<L ponderosus<pondus -eris weight]

pontifical a.教皇的;宗教的;高僧的 [ME<F pontifical or L pontificalis(PONTIFEX(古罗马)高僧团之一员;高僧 主教;教皇,教宗]

pony n.小马;逐字翻译;小型物 [perh<poulney(unrecorded)<F poulenet dimin of poulain foal(<L."幼小动物")bet on the ponies 赌赛马 pony] [edition(报纸之)航空版]

porcine a.猪的;脏的;卑鄙的 [F porcin or<L porcinus<porcus pig]

porous a.多孔的;多孔性的 [ME<OF poreux<medL porosus<L porus PORE(皮肤、树叶等的)细孔;毛孔,气孔(<G."通路")]

portent n.预兆;恶兆 [L portentum<por- PRO-+tendere stretch(PORTEND 成为的前兆;预知;给与的警告 portentious 前 的];[不祥的,有凶兆的 严肃的,森严的]

portly a.庄严的;肥胖的 [PORT 态度,举止 at the ~ 端着枪,以端枪的姿势 bearing 态度;举止,方向,方面 a man of lofty] [(gentlemanly) ~ 态度高尚的 (绅士 风度的) 人]

portmanteau n.旅行皮包;合成字 [F portmanteau<porter carry<L portare+manteau MANTLE斗蓬;罩子]

pose n.姿势;心理准备;假装 [obs appose<OF aposer var of oposer OPPOSE]

posterior a.在后的;其次的 [L, compar of posterus following<post after POSTERITY子孙;后代]

posterity n.后代 [ME<OF posterite<L posteritas -tatis<posterus: POSTERIOR]

posthumous a.死后的;遗著的 [L postumus last(superl<post after): in LL posth- by assoc with humus ground]

potable a.适于饮用的 [<L potare drink]

potentate n.统治者;君主 [ME<OF potentat or L potentatus dominion]

potential a.可能的;潜在的

[ME<OF potencial or LL potentialis<potentia(POTENT 有力的,有势力的 ;<药等>有效的;<男子>有 性能力的 A ~ poison will kill those weeds

potion n.一服;一剂 [ME<OF<L potio -onis<potus having drunk]

potpourri n.混合之事物;混成曲 [pot-pour-ri]

practicable a.可实行的;能用的 [F praticable<pratiquer put into practice(PRACTICAL)]

pragmatic a.实际的 [<Gk pragmatikos<pragma -matos deed]

prate v.喋喋不休;空谈 [ME<MDu, MLG praten, prob imit]

prattle v.闲谈 [MLG pratelen(PRATE)]

preach v.讲道;谆谆劝戒;劝告 [<L praedicare proclaim, in ecclL preach(PRAE-, dicare declare)]

precarious a.不确定的;危险的 [L precarius: PRAYER]

precede v.在先;居先 [OF preceder<L praecedere(PRAE-, cedere cess- go)]

precedent n.前例;在先的;在前的 [ME<OF(n & adj)(PRECEDE)]

precept n.箴言;教训 [ME<L praeceptum neut pp. of praecipere praecept- warn, instruct(PRAE-, capere take)preceptor训诫者;教师]

preciosity n.过于讲究;矫揉造作 [OF preciosite<L pretiositas<pretiosus(PRECIOUS宝贵的;过于精致的;珍爱的)]

precipitant a.勇往直前的;火急的 [precipitate (<L."朝下投掷") 猛然扔下;沉淀]

precipitate v.掷下;急躁的;猛冲的 [PRAE-, caput head precipitation n.投下;落下;轻率 F precipitation or L praecipitatio(PRECIPITATE)]

precision n.精密;严谨;精度 [F precision or L praecisio(PRECISE)]

preclude v.排除;除去 [L praecludere praeclus-(PRAE-, claudere shut)]

precocious a.早熟的;过早的 [L praecox -cocis<praecoquere ripen fully(PRAE-, coquere cook)]

precursor n.先兆 [L praecursor<praecurrere praecurs-(PRAE-, currere run)]

predatory a.掠夺的;掠食性的 [L praedatorius(PREDATOR掠夺者;食肉动物)]

predestination n.前定;宿命 [ME<ecclL praedestinatio(PREDESTINATE)]

predilection n.偏好 [F predilection ult<L praediligere praedilect- prefer(PRAE-, diligere select): DILIGENT]

predominant a.优越的;有力的;显著的

preeminent a.优越的;卓越的

preempt v.抢先取得;占用

preen v.用嘴理(毛) [ME, app var of earlier prune(perh rel to PRUNE): assoc with Sc & dial preen pierce, pin]

preface n.序文;前言;作序 [ME<OF<medL praefatia for L praefatio<praefari(PRAE-, fari speak)]

prefatory a.序文的;开场的

pregnant a.怀孕的;意味深长的 [ME<F pregnant or L praegnans -antis, earlier praegnas(prob as PRAE-,(g)nasci be born)]

prehensile a.(足、尾等)适于抓握的 [F prehensile<L prehendere prehens-(PRE-, hendere grasp)]

prelude n.序言;前兆 [F prelude or medL praeludium<L praeludere praelus-(PRAE-, ludere play)]

premeditate v.预先思考;预谋 [L praemeditari(PRAE-, MEDITATE计画,策画,企图 (对)默想,静思,熟虑(on, upon).]

Unit 23

premise v.立前提 [<medL praemissa(propositio)(proposition)set in front<L praemittere praemiss-(PRAE-, mittere send)]

premium n.额外费用;额外价格 [L praemium booty, reward(PRAE-, emere buy, take)]

premonition n.预告;前兆 [F premonition or LL praemonitio<L praemonere praemonit-(PRAE-, monere warn)]

preoccupied a.被先占的;一心一意的

preponderance n.优势;优越

preposterous a.反常的;荒谬的 [L praeposterus reversed, absurd(PRAE-, posterus coming after)(反)credible;rational]

prerogative n.特权 [ME<OF prerogative or L praerogativa privilege(orig to vote first)<praerogativus asked first(PRAE-, rogare] [ask)]

presage v.预示;成为前兆 [ME<F presage, presager<L praesagium<praesagire forebode(PRAE-, sagire perceive keenly)]

presentiment n.预感;预觉 [obs F presentiment(PRE-, SENTIMENT感情;意见)]

preserve v.保存;保持;装罐 [ME<OF preserver<LL praeservare(PRAE-, servare keep)]

prestige n.威望;声望 [<L., 本义是"魔术师的工夫", 后来变成]

presumption n.无礼;傲慢 [ME<OF presumpcion<L praesumptio -onis(PRESUME 推测,假定(<L."预取")]

pretence n.虚伪;借口 [ME<AF pretense ult<medL pretensus pretended(PRETEND)]

pretension n.自负;骄傲;主张;要求 [edL praetensio, -tio(PRETEND)pretentious 矫饰的;自负的 I do not feel that your limited resources will] [permit you to carry out such a ~ program]

pretext n.借口;托辞 [L praetextus outward display<praetexere praetext-(PRAE-, texere weave编织)]

prevail v.优胜;达到目地;奏效 [ME<L praevalere(PRAE-, valere have power), infl by AVAIL有用;有利]

prevaricate v.搪塞;支吾其词 [L praevaricari walk crookedly, practise collusion, in ecclL transgress(PRAE-, varicari straddle<varus bent,] [knock-kneed)]

prevarication n.支吾;推诿;搪塞 [(<L."弯曲脚走")]

prey n.饵食;捕食;战利品 [ME<OF preie<L praeda booty]

prickle n.v.动植物皮上的刺;刺痛 [PRICK 刺;责备,踢(马);挑选 For the blood test, the doctor made a tiny ~ in my finger with a needle prickl]y[多刺的;针刺般痛]

prim a.拘泥形式的;一本正经的 [17th c: prob orig cant<OF prin prime excellent<L primus first]

primitive a.原始的;旧式的;自学的 [ME<OF primitif -ive or L primitivus first of its kind<primitus in the first place<primus first]

primogeniture n.长子之身分 [medL primogenitura<L primo first+genitura<gignere genit- beget]

princely a.像王子的 [prince n.亲王;王子;公爵;性情温和的人物 ME <OF <L princeps principis first, chief, sovereign <primus] [first + capere take]

pristine a.原始的;原有的 [L pristinus former]

privy a.私用的;隐密的 [ME<OF prive<L privatus PRIVATE]

probation n.实验;试用;缓刑 [ME<OF probation or L probatio(PROVE)]

probe v.探测 [LL proba proof, in medL = examination,<L probare test]

probity n.刚直;廉洁 [F probite or L probitas<probus good]

procession n.游行;祈祷游行圣歌 [E<OF<L processio -onis(PROCEED)]

proclivity n.癖性;倾向 [L proclivitas<proclivis inclined(PRO-, clivus slope)]

procrastinate v.拖延;迟滞 [L procrastinare procrastinat-(PRO-, crastinus of tomorrow<cras tomorrow)]

prodigal a.浪费的;奢侈的 [medL prodigalis<L prodigus lavish]

prodigious a.奇异的;巨大的 [L prodigiosus(PRODIGY非凡的人;天才 不可思议之物;壮观,奇观]

prodigy n.惊异;非凡;怪物 [L prodigium portent]

profane v.玷污 [ME prophane<OF prophane or medL prophanus<L profanus before(ie outside)the temple, not sacred(PRO-,] [fanum temple)]

profile n.侧面像;轮廓 [obs It profilo, profilare(PRO-, filare spin<L filare<filum thread)]

profiteer n.得不正当利益者;奸商 [PROFIT profitless无益的]

profligate a.行为不检的;浪费的 [L profligatus dissolute, pp. of profligare overthrow, ruin(PRO-, fligere strike down)]

profound a.深奥的;意味深长的 [ME<AF & OF profund, profond<L profundus deep(PRO-, fundus bottom)profundity 深,深度;奥妙 I] [wouldn’t claim to have fully grasped the ~ of it]

profusion n.挥霍;丰富 [profuse 不吝惜的;豪爽的;奢侈的(PRO-向前, fundere fus- pour)My ~ apologies if I have offended you in any] [way]

progenitor n.祖先;起源 [ME<OF progeniteur<L progenitor -oris<progignere progenit-(PRO-, gignere beget)]

progeny n.子孙;后裔 [ME<OF progenie<L progenies<progignere(PROGENITOR)]

prognosis n.病状之预断;预测 [LL<Gk prognosis(PRO-, gignosko know)]

prognosticate v.预言;预示 [medL prognosticare(PROGNOSTIC前兆;预测)]

prohibitive a.禁止的;类同禁止的 [prohibitif -ive or L prohibitivus(PROHIBIT禁止)]

projectile n.投射物;发射体 [PRO-, jacere throw)]

proletarian n.a.无产阶级(的) [L proletarius one who served the State not with property but with offspring(proles)]

proliferate v.增殖;增生 [<F proliferation PRO-向前 LIFER后代]

prolific a.多产的 [medL prolificus(PROLIFEROUS)]

prolix a.冗长的;罗嗦的 [ME<OF prolixe or L prolixus poured forth, extended(PRO-, liquere be liquid)]

prolong v.延伸;拖长;发长音 [ME<OF prolonger &<LL prolongare(PRO-, longus long)]

promenade n.漫步;行列;舞会 [F<se promener walk, refl of promener take for a walk]

promethean a.普罗米修斯的 [Prometheus(希腊神话)普洛米修斯 因盗天火给人类而受惩,被绑在岩石上,肝脏为老鹰所啄食)]

promiscuity n.混乱;混淆不辨;杂婚 [(<L."掺合")]

promiscuous a.一团糟的;漫无目的的 [L promiscuus(PRO-, miscere mix混乱)MISCELLANEOUS混杂的 promiscuity混乱;杂乱]

prompt a.敏捷的;即时的;促使 [ME<OF prompt or L promptus pp. of promere prompt- produce(PRO-, emere take)prompting刺激;激励];[ 暗示;提示台词 promptness敏捷,机敏

promulgate v.宣布;散播 [L promulgare(PRO-, mulgere milk, cause to come forth)]

prone a.有...倾向的;俯卧的 [ME<L pronus<pro forwards]

pronounced a.明白的;断然的;决然的

prop n.命题;顶杠 [ME prob<MDu proppe: cf MLG, MDu proppen(v)]

propagate v.繁殖;传送 [L propagare propagat- multiply plants from layers,<propago(PRO-, pangere fix, layer)]

propel v.推进;驱使 [ME, = expel,<L propellere(PRO-, pellere puls- drive)propellant推进剂;推进者]

propensity n.倾向;习性 [propense<L propensus inclined, pp. of propendere(PRO-, pendere hang)]

prophylactic a.预防疾病的 [<Gk prophulaktikos<prophulasso(PRO-, phulasso guard)phylactic抗疾的 phylaxis(身体的)抗疾力]

propitiate v.慰解;抚慰 [L propitiare(PROPITIOUS吉利的;顺利的)]

propitious a.有利的;慈悲的;吉祥的 [ME<OF propicieus or L propitius]

propound v.提出(问题)

[<L proponere(PRO-, ponere posit- place): cf compound, expound ~ a theory (question, riddle) 提出学说 ( 问题,谜语 )

proprietor n.所有者;经营者

propriety n.适当;礼节 [ME, = ownership, peculiarity<OF propriete PROPERTY 财产,资产 (某物的) 性质,特性,属性(of)]

propulsive a.推进(力)的 [PROPEL推进;驱使 propulsion推进(力)]

prosaic a.平淡无奇的;乏味的 [F prosaique or LL prosaicus(PROSE散文)]

proscenium n.舞台前部(幕前的部分) [L<Gk proskenion(PRO-, skene stage)]

proscribe v.放逐;排斥 [L proscribere(PRO-, scribere script- write)]

prosecute v.贯彻;续行;经营

[ME<L prosequi prosecut-(PRO-, sequi follow)prosecutor1(法律)检察官 执行者,经营者 prosecution v. 实行;从事;检举

proselytize v.改变宗教;变节 [ME<LL proselytus<Gk proseluthos stranger, convert(PROS-, stem eluth- of erkhomai come)]

prosody n.诗体论;作诗法 [ME<L prosodia accent<Gk prosoidia(PROS-, ODE颂诗)]

prosperous a.繁荣的;好运的;适合的 [E<obs F prospereus<L prosper(us)PROSPERITY繁荣;成功]

prosthesis n.弥补术 [LL<Gk prosthesis<prostithemi(PROS-, tithemi place)]

prostrate v.伏身;平卧 [ME<L prostratus pp. of prosternere(PRO-, sternere strat- lay flat)]

protagonist n.主角;主人公 [Gk protagonistes(PROTO-, agonistes actor)]

protege n.被保护人;门徒 [F, pp. of proteger<L protegere PROTECT]

protest v.提出抗议;主张;声明 [ME<OF protest(n), protester(v),<L protestari(PRO-, testari assert<testis witness)]

protocol n.礼节;草案 [orig Sc prothocoll<OF prothocole<medL protocollum<Gk protokollon flyleaf(PROTO-, kolla glue)]

prototype n.原型;典型 [F prototype or LL prototypus<Gk prototupos(PROTO-, TYPE)]

protract v.延长 [L protrahere protract-(PRO-, trahere draw)]

protrude v.伸出;吐出 [L protrudere(PRO-, trudere trus- thrust)]

provenance n.出处;起源 [F<provenir<L provenire(PRO-, venire come)]

providence n.神的眷顾;神;及时的照顾 [E<OF providence or L providentia(PROVIDE)providential上帝的;天意的;保佑的PROVIDENCE+-IAL,] [after evidential etc]

provident a.预知的;节约的;有远虑的 [ME<L(PROVIDE)]

provincial a.地方的;偏狭的;关于省的 [ME<OF<L provincialis(PROVINCE)]

provision n.准备;供应;粮食 [ME<OF<L provisio -onis(PROVIDE)]

provisional a.临时的;暂时的

proviso n.附文;条件 [L, neut ablat pp. of providere PROVIDE, in medL phr proviso quod it being provided that]

provocation n.激怒之原因 [L provocatio(PROVOKE 使愤怒;刺激 PRO-, vocare call She did her best to ~ him to start his new] [novel)provocative 气人的;刺激的]

prowess n.勇敢;勇敢的行为;好本事 [ME<OF proesce<prou valiant]

proximity n.接近;近似 [ME<F proximite or L proximitas(PROXIMAL)]

proxy n.代理人 [ME<obs procuracy<medL procuratia(PROCURATION获得;代理)]

prudence n.谨慎;明辨;精明

prune v.修剪;砍树枝;砍掉 [ME prouyne<OF pro(o)ignier ult<L rotundus ROUND]

prurient a.好色的;猥亵的 [L prurire itch, be wanton prurience(病态的)好色,情欲]

pry v.窥伺;刺探;打听 [PRISE taken as pries 3rd sing pres]

pseudonym n.假名;笔名 [F pseudonyme<Gk pseudonymos(PSEUDO-, -onumos<onoma name)]

psyche n.灵魂;精神 [L<Gk psukhe breath, life, soul]

psychopathic a.精神病的

psychosis n.精神病;精神异状 [Gk psukhosis<psukhoo give life to(PSYCHE)]

psychotic a.n.精神病的(人)

puerile a.稚气的;无聊的 [F pueril or L puerilis<puer boy puerility n.幼年期;天真;幼稚]

pugnacious a.好斗的 [L pugnax -acis<pugnare fight<pugnus fist pugilism拳击 pugnacity爱打架,好斗(性)]

pulsate v.有规律的跳动 [L pulsare frequent of pellere puls- drive, beat]

pulverize v.磨(打)成粉状;粉碎 [ME<LL pulverizare<pulvis pulveris dust]

punch n.打孔器;拳打;力量 [abbr of PUNCHINELLO(十七世纪意大利的喜剧 (木偶戏) 主角,为身材矮胖 的小丑角色;潘趣的原型]

punctilious a.留心细节的 [F pointilleux<pointille<It(PUNCTILIO(仪式、形式等的)细微末节,(过分的)拘泥形式(<西班牙语或]意 [利语;<L."点")]

puncture n.刺;刺伤;爆破;用针刺 [ME<L punctura<pungere punct- prick 刺(with, on)(感到针刺般)刺痛;<良心等>责备]

pundit n.博学之人;权威 [Hind pandit<Skr pandita learned]

pungent a.辛辣的 [L pungent- pres part of pungere prick pungency(味觉、嗅觉、感情的)刺激 辛辣;尖刻]

punitive a.处罚的;讨伐的 [F punitif -ive or medL punitivus(PUNISHMENT)]

puny a.细微的;软弱的 [phonetic spelling of PUISNE(法律)资浅的;阶级较低的(法律)职位较低者;(尤指)陪席法官]

purblind a.半盲的;愚笨的 [ME pur(e)blind<PURE orig in sense ’utterly’, with assim to PUR-]

purchase v.购买;努力取得 [ME<AF purchacer, OF pourchacier seek to obtain(PUR-, CHASE)]

purgative a.净化的;证明自己无罪的 [ME<OF purgatif -ive or LL purgativus(PURGE)]

purgatory n.炼狱;苦难 [ME<AF purgatorie, OF -oire<medL purgatorium, neut of LL purgatorius(PURGE)]

purge v.消除;洗涤(罪等) [ME<OF purg(i)er<L purgare purify<purus pure]

purloin v.偷窃 [ME<AF purloigner put away, do away with(PUR-, loign far<L longe)]

purport n.意义;目的 [ME<AF & OF purport, porport<purporter<medL proportare(PRO-, portare carry)]

purveyor n.供应粮食者 [purveyance供给;(食物的)供应;(供应)粮食E<OF porveance<L providentia PROVIDENCE供给;上帝;] [谋远虑 purvey供给;供应(食物等)]

purview n.范围 [ME<AF purve  OF porve pp. of porveiir(PURVEY)]

pusillanimous a.懦弱的;胆怯的 [ecclL pusillanimis<pusillus very small+animus mind]

putative a.假定的;一般认定的 [ME<OF putatif -ive or LL putativus<L putare think]

putrid a.腐朽的 [L putridus<putrere to rot<puter putris rotten]

pyromaniac n.a.纵火狂(的) [pyromania放火癖;放火狂]

quack n.江湖郎中;大声聊天 [abbr of quacksalver<Du(prob<obs quacken prattle + salf SALVE 软膏,膏药;安慰(物),缓和物]

quadrennial a.连续四年的;四年一次的 [as QUADRENNIUM四年的时间 quadri- 表示"四"]

quaff v.一饮而尽;痛饮 [16th c.: perh. imit.]

quagmire n.沼地 [QUAG+MIRE quag 泥沼 quagga n.斑驴(背上有斑的南非产驴; 1875 年左右绝迹) Xhosa-Kaffir iqwara]

quail v.鹌鹑;少女 [The boy ~ed(with fear)at the sight 男孩看到那情景而畏缩(害怕) Her eyes ~ed before his angry looks ]面 [他生气的样子,她的眼睛露出惧色]

qualms n.不安;良心之谴责 [qualm晕眩,不安;疑虑;(良心的)责备]

quandary n.困惑;进迟两难之境 [16th c: orig uncert]

quarantine n.避免疾病传染之隔离 [It quarantina forty days<quaranta forty]

quash v.压碎;镇压;废除 [<LL cassare<cassus null, void or<L cassare frequent of quatere shake]

quatrain a.四行诗 [F<quatre four<L quattuor]

quay n.码头 [ME key(e), kay<OF kay<Gaulish caio<OCelt]

queasy a.易呕的;令人作呕的 [ME queysy, coisy perh<AF & OF, rel to OF coisir hurt]

queer a.奇妙的;可疑的;眼花的 [perh<G quer oblique(THWART反对;阻碍;横过)]

quell v.镇压;缓和 [OE cwellan kill<Gmc]

quench v.扑灭;熄灭;解渴 [ME<OE -cwencan causative<-cwincan be extinguished]

querulous a.好抱怨的;吹毛求疵的 [LL querulosus or L querulus<queri complain]

query n.质问;询问 [Anglicized form of quaere<L quaerere ask, after INQUIRY querist n.询问者,质问者 L quaerere ask]

quest n.探索;探求的目的物 [ME<OF queste, quester ult<L quaerere quaest- seek]

queue n.男子的辫子;排成一行 [F<L cauda tail form a ~ 排成一行 You have to ~ up at the bus stop (for the bus) 你 在公车站 (等公]共[ 汽车时) 必须排队

quibble v.模棱两可地说;说双关语 [dimin of obs quib prob<L quibus dative & ablat pl of qui who(familiar from use in legal documents)]

quiescent a.安静的;不活动的 [L quiescere<quies QUIET (反)restless]

quietude n.安静;静止

quintessence n.精华;精髓 [ME(in sense 3)<F<medL quinta essentia fifth ESSENCE基本;元素.]

Unit 24

quip n.妙语;双关语 [abbr of obs quippy perh<L quippe forsooth]

quirk n.急转;怪癖 [by a ~ of fate 命运的剧变(播弄)]

quixotic a.幻想的;不切实际的 [Don Quixote 唐吉诃德, hero of Cervantes’ romance<Sp quixote thigh armour]

quizzical a.戏弄的;怀疑的 [He gave me a ~ look 他以狐疑的神色看我 a ~ smile 嘲笑]

quondam a.过去的;以前的 [L(adv), = formerly;a ~ friend of mine 我过去的一位朋友]

quorum n.法定人数 [L, = of whom(we wish that you be two, three, etc), in the wording of commissions]

rabble n.乌合之众;乱民;暴民 [F r le<medL rotabulum, L rutabulum fire-shovel<ruere rut- rake up]

rabid a.狂热的;狂暴的 [L rabidus<rabere rave]

rack n.巨大痛苦 [ME, prob of Scand orig: cf Norw and Sw dial rak wreckage etc<reka drive]

radiance n.光辉;光彩 [同radiancy=radiation]

radiate v.放射;辐射 [L radiare radiat-(RADIUS)]

ragamuffin n.衣衫褴褛的人 [prob based on RAG: cf 14th-c ragamoffyn the name of a demon]

rage n.愤怒;狂暴;战争狂 [ME<OF rager ult<L RABIES]

ragged a.破烂的;粗糙的;崎岖的 [ME<ON roggvathr tufted]

raid n.急袭;袭击;侵入;搜捕 [ME, Sc form of OE rad ROAD air ~ 空袭]

rally v.重整 [F railler: RAIL(作栅栏、篱笆等的)横木;横杠铁路]

ramble n.漫布;逍遥;漫谈 [prob<MDu rammelen(of an animal)wander about in sexual excitement, frequent of rammen copulate with, rel] [to RAM撞击;公羊]

ramification n.分枝;分叉 [F<ramifier: RAMIFY ramify v.分枝;分派;分成网眼 F ramifier<medL ramificare<L ramus branch]

ramp n.坡道;猛冲;横冲直撞

rampage n.v.乱闹;乱冲;发怒 [18th c, perh<RAMP]

rampant a.后足立起的;无约束的 [ME<OF, part of ramper: RAMP <狮子等>以后脚立起(尤指纹章的图样)]

rampart n.围绕堡垒四周之土堤 [F rempart, rempar<remparer fortify<emparer take possession of, ult<L ante before+parare prepare]

rancid a.腐臭的 [L rancidus stinking]

rancor n.怨恨 [rancorous深恨的;怀恶意的]

ransack v.到处搜索;掠夺

[ME<ON rannsaka<rann house+-saka<soekja seek They had ~ed my room to try and find the letter 他们 [搜遍我的房间设法找出那封信]

ransom n.赎金;赔偿金 [ME<OF ransoun(er)<L redemptio -onis REDEMPTION 买回,赎回,赎当;偿还 beyond (past) ~ 不可 的],[难以济渡的]

rant v.咆哮;怒吼 [Du ranten rave]

rap n.轻拍;责骂;不值钱的 [Ir ropaire Irish counterfeit coin]

rapacious a.贪婪的;强夺的 [L rapax -acis<rapere snatch rapacity 抢夺;贪欲;贪吃]

rapprochement n.重建友谊;重归旧好 [F<rapprocher(RE-, APPROACH)]

rapt a.入迷的;全神贯注的 [ME<L raptus pp. of rapere seize rapturous兴高彩烈的;狂喜的]

rapture n.狂喜 [obs F rapture or medL raptura(RAPT)]

rascal n.恶棍 [ME<OF rascaille rabble, prob ult<L radere ras- scrape]

ratify v.批准 [ME<OF ratifier<medL ratificare(RATE)]

ratiocination n.推理;推断

rationalize v.合理化 [RATIONAL理性的;合理的;推理的 rationale基本原理;根据]

raucous a.粗哑的;刺耳的 [L raucus a ~ party 喧嚣的聚会]

ravage v.掠夺;破坏 [F ravage(r)alt<ravine rush of water]

rave v.热烈赞扬;倾倒 [var of dial rathe]

ravenous a.极饿的;贪婪的 [ME<OF ravineus(RAVEN 掠夺,到处抢<about>贪婪地吃<食物>]

ravish v.抢夺;强奸 [ME<OF ravir ult<L rapere seize]

raze v.夷平;摧毁 [ME rase = wound slightly<OF raser shave close ult<L radere ras- scrape]

reactionary a.保守的;反动的 [RE-, L agere do, act)]

realm n.王国;地区;领域 [ME<OF realme, reaume,<L regimen -minis(see REGIMEN): infl by OF reiel ROYAL]

realtor n.房地产经纪人

rebate n.折扣 [respelling of RABBET, after REBATE]

rebellious a.造反的;反抗的;有反意的 [E<REBELLION+-OUS or<earlier rebellous+-IOUS]

rebuff n.v.断然拒绝;阻止;挫折 [obs F rebuffe(r)<It ribuffo, ribuffare, rabbuffo, rabbuffare(RE-, buffo puff)]

rebuke v.斥责 [ME<AF & ONF rebuker(RE-, OF buchier beat, orig cut down wood<busche log)]

rebut v.辩驳;驳回 [ME<AF rebuter, OF reboter(RE-, BUTT连接两端;毗连;接界(两物体末端之)平接;对接]

recalcitrant a.顽强的;不服从的 [L recalcitrare(RE-, calcitrare kick out with the heels<calx calcis heel)recalcitrance难驾驭,顽梗,固执,顽抗]

recant v.取消;撤回 [L recantare revoke(RE-, cantare sing, chant)recantation(正式的)取消,撤回]

recapitulate v.节述要旨;择要说明 [L recapitulare(RE-, capitulum CHAPTER)]

recede v.倒退;远走;向后倾斜 [ME<L recedere(RE-, cedere cess- go)]

receptacle n.容器;储藏所;花托;花床 [<L receptaculum(RECEPTION) receipt n.v. 领受;收据;处方;制法 ME receit(e) <AF & ONF receite, OF] [re?oite, recete]

receptive a.善于接纳的;感受敏锐的 [F receptif -ive or medL receptivus(RECEPTION)]

recess n.休息;休会;深底 [L recessus(RECEDE)]

recession n.引退;退却;萧条 [L recessio(RECESS)]

recidivism n.累犯

recipient n.接受者 [F recipient<It recipiente or L recipiens<recipere RECEIVE]

reciprocal a.相互的;交往的 [L reciprocus ult<re- back+pro forward]

reciprocate v.回报 [L reciprocare reciprocat-(RECIPROCAL)]

recital n.背诵;详述;故事 [give a brief ~ of the course of events 简要地 说明事件的经过情形]

recluse n.隐士 [ME<OF reclus recluse pp. of reclure<L recludere reclus-(RE-, claudere shut)]

recoil n.弹回;后退;畏缩 [ME<OF reculer(RE-, L culus buttocks)]

reconcile v.复交;和解;使一致 [ME<OF reconcilier or L reconciliare(RE-, conciliare CONCILIATE调和)]

recondite a.深奥的;隐密的 [L reconditus(RE-, conditus pp. of condere hide)]

reconnaissance n.侦察 [F(earlier -oissance)<stem of reconna re(RECONNOITER勘察)]

recount v.详述;依次说明;个别叙述 [ONF & AF reconter(RE-, COUNT)]

recourse n.求助;依赖 [ME<OF recours<L recursus(RE-, COURSE)]

recreant n.懦夫;叛徒 [ME<OF, part of recroire<medL(se)recredere yield in trial by combat(RE-, credere entrust)]

recrimination n.反控告;反责 [recriminate互相责备;反责;反唇相讥 edL recriminare(RE-, criminare accuse<crimen CRIME)]

recrudescence n.复发;再发

recruit v.新兵 [earlier = reinforcement,<obs F dial recrute ult<F recro re increase again<L recrescere]

rectify v.修正 [ME<OF rectifier<medL rectificare<L rectus right rectification改正;整流;精馏]

rectitude n.正直;公正 [ME<OF rectitude or LL rectitudo<L rectus right]

recumbent a.横卧的;斜靠的 [L recumbere recline(RE-, cumbere lie)]

recuperate v.恢复 [L recuperare recuperat- recover recuperative使恢复的;有恢复力的]

recurrent a.再现的;反复的 [RE-, currere run)]

recusant n.拒绝服从的人 [L recusare refuse]

redeem v.买回;取回;偿还 [ME<OF redimer or L redimere redempt-(RE-, emere buy)]

redolent a.芬芳的 [ME<OF redolent or L redolere(RE-, olere smell)]

redoubtable a.可怕的 [ME<OF redoutable<redouter fear(RE-, DOUBT)]

redress n.救济;补偿 [ME<OF redresse(r), redrecier(RE-, DRESS)]

redundant a.过多的;冗长的 [L redundare redundant-(REDOUND)]

reek v.放出恶臭;有...气味 [OE reocan(v), rec(n),<Gmc]

refection n.点心;小吃 [ME<OF<L refectio -onis<reficere(REFECTORY)]

refectory n.餐厅 [LL refectorium<L reficere refresh(RE-, facere make)]

refinement n.精制;洗练;高雅;巧妙 [EFINE+-MENT, after F raffinement]

reflection n.反射;反射热;反应色 [RE-, flectere flex- bend) reflective a.反射的;反映的;反省的]

refraction n.折光;折射 [F refraction or LL refractio(REFRACT折射)]

refractory a.倔强的;固执的 [alt of obs refractary<L refractarius(REFRACT折射)]

refrain v.歌曲的反复句 [ME<OF refrain(earlier refrait)ult<L refringere(RE-, frangere break), because the refrain ’broke’ the sequence]

refulgent a.光辉的;灿烂的 [L refulgere(RE-, fulgere shine)refulgence(文语)辉煌;灿烂]

refurbish v.整修;再供给;重新装备

refutation n.反驳;辩驳 [refute驳倒;反驳 L refutare(RE-: cf CONFUTE驳倒)]

regal a.帝王的 [ME<OF regal or L regalis<rex regis king]

regale v.款待 [F regaler<OF gale pleasure]

regeneration n.改造;再生 [regenerare(RE-, GENERATE)]

regicide n.弑君;弑君者 [L rex regis king+-CIDE]

regime n.政体;制度 [F regime(REGIMEN)]

regimen n.养生之道 [L<regere rule]

regulate v.使有规则;统制;调整 [LL regulare regulat-<L regula RULE regulation调整;调节;取缔;规则 The ~ of the temperature is] [accomplished by the thermostat]

rehabilitate v.恢复;重获 [medL rehabilitare(RE-, HABILITATE 提供(矿场)资金 取得资格]

rehash v.重新雕刻;窜改

reign n.统治时期;王朝;领域 [ME<OF reigne kingdom<L regnare<rex regis king]

reimburse v.补偿;付还 [RE-+obs imburse put in a purse<medL imbursare(IM-, PURSE)]

rein n.v.缰绳;控制的手段;控制 [ME<OF rene, reigne, earlier resne, ult<L retinere RETAIN保持]

reiterate v.反复地说或做 [L reiterare(RE-, ITERATE)]

rejuvenate v.使返老还童 [RE-+L juvenis young]

relapse n.复发;回复 [L relabi relaps-(RE-, labi slip)]

relaxation n.松弛;放松;减轻 [relaxatio(RELAX)]

relegate v.驱逐;贬谪; 移转;委托 [L relegare relegat-(RE-, legare send)~ a person to an inferior position 把某人降到较低职位 ~ a matter to] [another authority 把问题移转给另一机构]

relentless a.无情的;冷酷的;残酷的 [relent发慈悲;怜悯 formed as RE-+L lentare bend<lentus flexible]

relevancy n.切题;中肯 [relevance关联,适当;适切]

relic n.圣骨;圣人的遗物;纪念品 [ME relike, relique, etc<OF relique<L reliquiae: RELIQUIAE 遗物 3(地质)动植物之化石]

relinquish v.放弃 [ME<OF relinquir<L relinquere(RE-, linquere leave)]

relish v.喜欢;享受 [alt(with assim to -ISH)of obs reles<OF reles, relais remainder<relaisser: RELEASE]

remainder n.剩余;残留物;余存者 [ME(in sense 5)<AF, = OF remaindre: REMAIN仍然是;仍停留]

remedial a.补救的;治疗的 [LL remedialis<L remedium(REMEDY矫正;良药)]

reminisce v.追忆;说(写)...的回忆 [back-form<REMINISCENCE回忆;回忆录 LL reminiscentia<L reminisci remember]

remiss a.疏忽的;不小心的 [ME<L remissus pp. of remittere slacken: REMIT免除]

remission n.宽恕;免罪;缓和 [ME<OF remission or L remissio(REMIT)]

remit v.汇出;邮寄;发回下级法院 [ME<L remittere remiss-(RE-, mittere send)remitter汇款人 remittee收款人]

remittance n.汇款(额)

remnant n.残余;剩货 [ME(earlier remenant)<OF remenant<remenoir REMAIN]

remonstrate v.抗议 [medL remonstrare(RE-, monstrare show)remonstrance抗议;忠告;规劝]

remunerative a.有报酬的 [remunerari(RE-, munus muneris gift)remunerate 给与报酬;赔偿]

renascent a.新生的;复活的;复兴的 [L renasci(RE-, nasci be born)renaissance新生;复活;文艺复兴 R~ is so called because of the return to] [classical tradition]

rend v.撕;割裂 [OE rendan, rel to MLG rende]

render v.使成;报答;供给 [ME<OF rendre ult<L reddere reddit-(RE-, dare give)rendering翻译,表现;描写;演出]

rendezvous n.约会(地点);集结地 [F rendez-vous present yourselves<rendre: RENDER提供]

rendition n.翻译;演奏;演出 [obs F<rendre RENDER]

renege v.食言;背信 [medL renegare(RE-, L negare deny) renegue n.=renege背信;食言]

renounce v.放弃;否定 [ME<OF renoncer<L renuntiare(RE-, nuntiare announce)]

renovate v.革新;修理 [L renovare(RE-, novus new)]

renunciation n.放弃;弃权 [ME<OF renonciation or LL renuntiatio(RENOUNCE断绝关系)]

reparable a.能修补的;可赔偿的 [F<L reparabilis(REPAIR)reparation赔偿]

repartee n.机智之应答 [F repartie fem pp. of repartir start again, reply promptly(RE-, partir PART)]

repast n.餐;食物 [ME<OF repaistre<LL repascere repast- feed a dainty ~ 丰盛的一餐 a light (slight) ~ 清淡的便餐]

repeal v.撤销;废除;否定 [ME<AF repeler, OF rapeler(RE-, APPEAL恳求)The law was finally ~ed 该项法律最后被废除]

repel v.击退;抵制;抗防 [ME<L repellere(RE-, pellere puls- drive)]

repellent a.排斥的;讨厌的 [L repellere(REPEL)]

repent v.后悔;懊悔;悔改 [repentance后悔;悔改 repentant后悔的]

repertoire n.剧目;演唱目录 [F repertoire<LL(REPERTORY 由固定剧团在某一段期间演出几种选 定戏目的方式 (知识等的) ] 藏,[宝库 a ~ of information 资讯的宝库(百科辞典等)]

replenish v.再装满;补充 [ME<OF replenir(RE-, plenir<plein full<L plenus)]

replete a.充满的;盈满的 [ME<OF replet replete or L repletus pp. of replere(RE-, plere plet- fill)repletion充满;客满;饱食]

repose v.信赖;委任;就寝;横卧 [RE- + POSE after L reponere reposit-]

repository n.贮藏处 [obs F repositoire or L repositorium(REPOSE)]

reprieve n.暂缓执行(死刑) [ME as pp. repryed<AF & OF repris pp. of reprendre(RE-, prendre<L prehendere take): 16th-c -v- unexpl]

reprimand v.严斥;申诫 [F reprimande(r)<Sp reprimenda<L reprimenda neut pl gerundive of reprimere REPRESS]

reprisal n.报复 [ME(in sense 2)<AF reprisaille<medL reprisalia<repraehensalia(REPREHEND)]

reprobate v.无赖汉;堕落的人 [RE-, probare approve(reprobation反对 The students showed their ~ of his act by refusing to talk with him)]

reprove v.责骂 [ME<OF reprover<LL reprobare disapprove: REPROBATE非难 reproof谴责;申斥;责备.]

Unit 25

repudiate v.否认;拒绝 [L repudiare<repudium divorce]

repugnance n.嫌恶

[ME(in sense 2)<F repugnance or L repugnantia<repugnare oppose(RE-, pugnare fight)repugnant讨厌的, 不愉快的;厌恶的

repulse v.逐退;击退;辩驳;拒绝 [L repellere repuls- drive back(REPEL击退)repulsive辞退的;冷淡的;厌恶的 I have seldom had so ~ an] [experience as the tour of that abattoir]

requiem n.安灵弥撒;安魂曲 [ME<accus of L requies rest, the initial word of the mass]

requisite n.必要品;要件 [prerequisite预先非有不可的;必须的;首要事物 Naval service is a ~ condition for joining the club] [requisition 请求;命令;必要条件]

requite v.报酬;报复 [RE-+quite QUIT requital还礼;报仇 I look forward to an opportunity to make ~ for all the favours you have] [done for me]

rescind v.撤消 [L rescindere resciss-(RE-, scindere cut)]

rescission n.废除;取消

resemblance n.类似点;外观;酷似 [E<AF(RESEMBLE类似)]

reserve v.贮存;话语不多 [ME<OF reserver<L reservare(RE-, servare keep)reservoir水库]

residence n.住宅;居住;居留权 [ME<OF residence or medL residentia<L residere: RESIDE居住]

residue n.残余 [ME<OF residu<L residuum: RESIDUUM=residue residual 剩余的;残渣的;余数的]

resignation n.放弃;辞职;屈从 [RE-, signare sign]

resilient a.有弹性的;活泼的 [L resiliens resilient-(RESILE)resilience,-cy弹回;弹性;弹力;愉快]

resonant a.回响的;共鸣的 [F resonnant or L resonare resonant-(RE-, sonare sound)resonance共鸣;反响;共振]

resort v.去;屡次往访;依靠;滞留 [ME<OF resortir(RE-, sortir come or go out)]

respective a.分别的;各自的;个别的 [respectif -ive<medL respectivus(RESPECT尊重)respecter尊敬的人;趋炎附势者]

respite n.缓刑;休息 [ME<OF respit<L respectus RESPECT尊重]

resplendent ad.灿烂的;辉煌的 [ME<L resplendere(RE-, splendere glitter闪闪发光 All that ~s is not gold]

restitution n.赔偿 [ME<OF restitution or L restitutio<restituere restitut- restore(RE-, statuere establish)]

restive a.不安宁的;动乱的 [ME<OF restif -ive<Rmc(REST)]

restrain v.压抑;抑制 [<L restringere restrict-(RE-, stringere tie)(restraint n抑制;制止;禁止 The law places ~s on executives’] buying [and selling shares in their own c]

resume v.取回;重新开始;再继续 [ME<OF resumer or L resumere resumpt-(RE-, sumere take)resumption取回;恢复;再开始;继续]

resurgent a.复活的;再起的 [L resurgere resurrect-(RE-, surgere rise)resurgence再起;复活;再现]

resuscitate v.使复活;恢复 [L resuscitare(RE-, suscitare raise)]

retaliate v.报复;回敬 [L retaliare(RE-, talis such)]

retard v.减速;迟缓;妨碍 [F retarder<L retardare(RE-, tardus slow)retarded智力迟钝的]

retentive a.保留的;记性好的 [ME<OF retentif -ive or medL retentivus(RETAIN保持)retention保有;维持;保持力;记忆力]

reticence n.沉默;缄口 [L reticentia<reticere(RE-, tacere be silent)reticent无言的;沉默的;谨慎的]

reticulated a.网状的 [reticulation网眼;网状组织 reticular 网状的;蜂窝状的 错综复杂的]

retinue n.侍从;随员 [ME<OF retenue fem pp. of retenir RETAIN]

retort v.回嘴;反击;报复;蒸馏器 [F retorte<medL retorta fem pp. of retorquere: He ~ed that it was no business of mine 他反 驳说我管不着]

retract v.缩回;取消;撤回 [L retrahere or(in sense 1)retractare(RE-, trahere tract- draw)(retraction撤消;收回 He dropped his libel suit after] [the newspaper published a ~.)]

retreat n.v.撤退;避难所 [ME<OF retret(n), retraiter(v)<L retrahere: RETRACT]

retribution n.报应;惩罚 [ME<LL retributio(RE-, tribuere tribut- assign)retributive报应的]

retrieve v.恢复;寻回 [ME<OF retroeve- stressed stem of retrover(RE-, trover find)(retrieval n取回;恢复;修补)]

retroactive a.(法律)有追溯力的

retrograde v.退化;衰落 [ME<L retrogradus(RETRO-, gradus step, gradi walk)retrogress倒退,后退;退步;退化 ETRO-, after] [PROGRESS]

retrospective a.回顾的;追想的 [ETRO-, after PROSPECT n]

revelation n.揭示;泄露的事实 [E<OF revelation or LL revelatio(REVEAL揭示)]

revelry n.狂欢;饮宴作乐

revenge n.报仇;报复;雪耻 [ME<OF revenger, revencher<LL revindicare(RE-, vindicare lay claim to)]

reverberate v.回声;反响 [L reverberare(RE-, verberare lash<verbera(pl)scourge)reverberant,-ative 反响的;反射的]

reverence n.尊敬 [ME<OF<L reverentia(REVERE崇敬)reverent尊敬的;虔诚的]

reverie n.幻想;深思 [obs F resverie<OF reverie rejoicing, revelry<rever be delirious]

reverse v.颠倒;取消;反转 [ME<OF revers(n), reverser(v),<L revertere revers-(RE-, vertere turn)reversion退回;隔代遗传;继承权]

revile v.辱骂;诽谤 [ME<OF reviler(RE-, VILE)]

revolt n.叛乱;造反;呕心 [F revolter<It rivoltare ult<L revolvere(REVOLVE旋转)revolting背叛的;叛乱的;讨厌的]

revulsion n.(感情上的)突变 [F revulsion or L revulsio(RE-, vellere vuls- pull)]

rhapsody n.叙事诗;溢美之词;狂想曲 [L rhapsodia<Gk rhapsoidia(RHAPSODE) rhapsodize用狂文(诗)描述;过分赞美 He ~d over (about, on) the] [victory 他狂热地谈论胜利的事]

rhetoric n.修辞学;浮夸之言语 [<Gk rhetorike(tekhne)(art)of rhetoric(RHETOR 修辞学家,修辞学教师 演说家]

ribald a.下流的;猥亵的 [ME(earlier sense ’low-born retainer’)<OF ribau(l)d<riber pursue licentious pleasures<Gmc]

riddle v.解谜;穿孔 [OE hriddel, earlier hrider: cf hridrian sift]

rife a.众多的;流行的 [OE ryfe prob<ON r*fr acceptable<reifa enrich, reifr cheerful]

rifle n.来福枪;步枪;洗劫 [rifle <德语,义为"作沟槽"首先用以指在 枪膛中的螺旋状沟槽(即来复线(rifling),后枪膛中的螺旋状] [槽(即来复线(rifling)]

rift n.裂口;不和 [a ~ in the clouds (curtains) 云缝 (窗帘的间隙) a ~ between the two parties 两(政)党间的失和]

rigor n.严厉;苛刻 [rigorous严厉的;严酷的 OF rigorous or LL rigorosus]

rime n.白霜 [rime riche(法)完全押韵(不仅母音相同, 在母音前后之子音亦相同的押韵, 如write-right 或port deport];[亦称 identical rhyme)]

ringlet n.卷发;小圈;小环

rinse n.v.嗽洗;洗涤;洗刷

[ME<OF rincer, raincier, Be careful to ~ the detergent from these dishes 注意务必冲洗掉这些盘子上的 清洁剂

riotous a.引起骚扰的;放荡的

[ME<OF(RIOT 大混乱,紊乱;五彩缤纷 suppress (put down) a ~ 镇压暴乱 a ~ of color 五彩缤纷 (五 颜六色) 的色彩

rip v.扯裂;割裂;剥掉 [perh<rep, abbr of REPROBATE(文语罕)严厉地谴责,责难 邪恶的,堕落的]

risible a.能笑的;可笑的 [LL risibilis<L ridere ris- laugh]

ritual n.典礼;典礼的;仪式的 [L ritualis(RITE仪式;典礼;礼拜式;惯例)]

rivalry n.竞争;竞赛 [friendly ~ 友善的竞争 factional rivalries 派系间的抗争 rival n.(情场.商场的)对手a.竞争对手的 L] [rivalis, orig. = using the same stream, <rivus stream]

riveting a.饶有兴味的;吸引人的

roan a.柔软羊皮 [ME, perh<Roan, old name of Rouen in N France]

robe n.宽松的长外袍;单件女装 [ME<OF<Gmc(ROB, orig sense ’booty战利品’)]

robust a.强壮的 [F robuste or L robustus firm and hard<robus, robur oak, strength]

rococo a.洛可可式的;过分修饰的 [F, joc alt<ROCAILLE(以卵石和贝壳制成的海神、海豚等)花园石贝装饰物]

roguish a.不诚实的;流氓的

roil v.搅混液体;激怒;动荡 [perh<OF ruiler mix mortar<LL regulare regulate]

roister v.作威作福;喧闹无度 [obs roister roisterer<F rustre ruffian var of ruste<L rusticus RUSTIC乡村]

roseate a.粉红的;乐观的 [L roseus rosy(ROSE)]

rostrum n.讲坛 [L, = beak<rodere ros- gnaw: orig rostra(pl, in sense 1a)in the Roman forum adorned with beaks of captured] [galleys]

rote n.机械式的方式 [by rote 机械地;强记地 act by ~ 机械地行动]

rotund a.圆形的;圆胖的 [L rotundus<rotare ROTATE(rotundity肥胖;洪亮 Washington Irving emphasized the ~ of the governor by] [describing his height and circumference)]

roundabout a.绕远路的;迂回的(话等)

rout n.大败;败逃;混乱的 [ROUTE)]

rowdy n.粗暴的人;粗暴的 [19th-c US, orig = lawless backwoodsman 居于边远地区的人;穷乡僻壤的居民 粗笨的人]

royalty n.皇权;版税

[ME<OF roialte(ROYAL) royal a.王的;受国王保护的;高贵的;大型的;极佳的n王室的人;英国部兵第 一团的旧名 ME <OF roial <L regalis REGAL

rubble n.瓦砾 [ME robyl, rubel, of uncert orig: cf OF robe spoils]

rubicund a.带红色的;面色红润的 [F rubicond or L rubicundus<rubere be red]

rubric n.红字;标题;习俗 [ME<OF rubrique, rubrice or L rubrica(terra)red(earth or ochre)as writing-material, rel to rubeus red]

ruddy a.红色的;面色红润的 [OE rudig(RUDD赤睛鱼 ,有棕色身体及红色的鳍)]

rudiment n.基本原则;初步 [F rudiment or L rudimentum(RUDE, after elementum ELEMENT)]

rudimentary a.基本的;发育不全的

rueful a.悲惨的;悔恨的 [ME,<RUE悲叹;悔恨;怜悯]

ruffian n.恶棍;残暴的 [F ruf(f)ian<It ruffiano, perh<dial rofia scurf]

ruffle v.使皱

ruinous a.毁坏的;荒废的 [ME<L ruinosus(RUIN)]

ruminate v.反刍;沉思 [He ~d on (over) what had happened the day before 他沉思前一天发生的事 ruminative默想的;沉思的] [ruminant反刍类的;沉思的;反刍动物]

rummage v.翻寻;遍找 [earlier as noun in obs sense ’arranging of casks etc in a hold’: OF arrumage<arrumer stow(AD-, run ship’s] [hold<MDu ruim ROOM)]

rupture n.破裂;失和 [ME<OF rupture or L ruptura<rumpere rupt- break]

rural a.乡下的;田园的 [ME<OF rural or LL ruralis<rus ruris the country]

ruse n.诈术;谋略 [ME<OF<ruser drive back, perh ult<L rursus backwards: cf RUSH]

rustic a.乡村的;粗俗的 [ME<L rusticus<rus the country]

rusticate v.到农村去;下乡 [L rusticari live in the country(RUSTIC)]

ruthless a.无情的;残酷的 [ME,<ruth compassion<RUE 后悔<做了>,悔恨;抱憾]

sabotage n.怠工;破坏活动;颠覆活动 [<F saboter, 用木鞋(sabot)弄出噪音,拙劣地做(bungle),任意破坏]

sack n.大袋子;垒;解雇;床;掠夺

[three ~s of potatoes 三大袋的马铃薯 hit the ~ 睡觉,就寝get the ~ 被解雇,被开除 give a person the ~ 把某人开除 (解雇) put a city to the ~ 劫掠某城市

sacrilege n.亵渎 [ME<OF<L sacrilegium<sacrilegus stealer of sacred things,<sacer sacri sacred+legere take possession of]

sacrosanct a.神圣不可侵犯的 [L sacrosanctus<sacro ablat of sacrum sacred rite(see SACRED)+sanctus(SAINT(<L."神圣的")圣人,圣徒],[ 圣者

sadistic a.虐待狂的 [sadism n.虐待狂;虐待性之性变态 F sadisme <Count or ’Marquis’ de Sade, Fr. writer d. 1814]

safeguard n.保护;保护物;安全设备 [ME<AF salve garde, OF sauve garde(SAFE, GUARD)]

saffron a.橘黄色的 [ME<OF safran<Arab za’ faran saffrony 淡黄色]

sag v.松弛;下垂;弯曲 [ME<MLG sacken, Du zakken subside 土地下沉;暴风雨、激情等平息,消退,缓和]

saga n.冒险故事;传奇故事 [ON, = narrative, rel to SAW]

sagacious a.睿智的;明敏的 [L sagax sagacis sagacity 睿智;聪敏]

sage a.哲人 [ME<OF ult<L sapere be wise]

saintly a.圣洁的

salient a.显著的;突出的 [L salire leap]

saline a.含盐的;咸的 [SALINE)]

sallow a.淡黄的;病黄色的 [OE salh salg-<Gmc, rel to OHG salaha, ON selja, L salix]

sally n.突击;旅行;俏皮话;警句 [意为"突然的举动"(leaping motion)]

salubrious a.有益健康的 [L salubris<salus health (反)injurious]

salutary a.有益健康的 [ME<F salutaire or L salutaris<salus -utis health]

salvage v.抢救;援救 [F<medL salvagium<L salvare SAVE salvation救助,救助物]

salver n.盘;盒 [<F salve 给国王奉献食物的盘子 ())platter大盘子 SALVE药膏;减轻;缓和]

salvo n.排炮;礼炮;齐发;托词 [L, ablat of salvus SAFE as used in salvo jure without prejudice to the rights of(a person)]

sanctimonious a.伪装虔诚的;伪装神圣的 [L sanctimonia sanctity(SAINT神圣;圣徒;成为圣徒)]

sanction n.v.认可;批准;制裁 [F<L sanctio -onis<sancire sanct- make sacred]

sanctuary n.圣所;神殿;至圣所 [ME<AF sanctuarie, OF sanctuaire<L sanctuarium(SAINT)]

sanctum n.至圣所;密室;私室 [L, neut of sanctus holy, pp. of sancire consecrate: sanctorum genit pl in transl of Heb kodes holy of holies]

sangfroid n.沉着冷静

sanguinary a.血淋淋的;血腥的 [L sanguinarius<sanguis -inis blood]

sanguine a.乐天的;自信的 [ME<OF sanguin -ine blood-red<L sanguineus(SANGUINARY 血腥的,血淋淋的,残忍的]

sapient a.有智慧的;伶俐的 [ME<OF sapient or L part stem of sapere be wise sapience煞像有学识;装聪明;智慧]

sarcasm n.讽刺;挖苦 [<Gk sarkazo tear flesh, in late Gk gnash the teeth, speak bitterly<sarx sarkos flesh sarcastic讽刺的;讥讽的];[ 辛辣的

sardonic a.讽刺的;嘲笑的 [F sardonique, earlier sardonien<L sardonius<Gk sardonios of Sardinia, alt of sardanios Homeric epithet of] [bitter or scornful laughter]

sartorial a.裁缝的 [L sartor tailor<sarcire sart- patch]

satanic a.穷凶极恶的 [Satan撒旦]

sate v.使充分满足 [prob<dial sade, OE sadian(SAD), assim to SATIATE 使<需求、欲望等>充分满足 使<人>生腻]

satellite n.卫星;随从 [F satellite or L satelles satellitis attendant]

satiate v.使满足;使饱 [L satiatus pp. of satiare<satis enough This book ~s the reader’s interest 这本书可充分满足读者的兴趣]

satiety n.饱足;满足 [obs F saciete<L satietas -tatis<satis enough]

satin n.缎子;缎子般的;光滑的 ["盛唐"的谐音,<中国唐朝的丝绸.sateen 绵(毛)织假缎 satin(缎子)与参考velveteen(天鹅绒)合成. satiny] [a.缎子似的;光滑的]

satire n.讽刺文学 [F satire or L satira later form of satura medley satirical=satiric;好讽刺的;爱挖苦人的 satirize v.讽刺;对.].[ 写讽刺文章;挖苦

satrap n.暴吏;主管 [ME<OF satrape or L satrapa<Gk satrapes<OPers xsathra-pavan country-protector satrapy(省长、总督 之])[辖地;管辖权]

saturate v.使渗透;使湿透 [L saturare<satur full]

saturnine a.忧郁的;沉默的 [ME<OF saturnin<medL Saturninus(SATURN农神;土星)]

satyr n.森林之神;色狼 [ME<OF satyre or L satyrus<Gk saturos]

saunter v.闲逛;漫步 [ME, = muse]

savage a.天然的;野蛮的;无礼的 [ME<OF sauvage wild<L silvaticus<silva a wood(<L."森林的,野生的")]

savant n.学者;博学之士 [F, part of savoir know(SAPIENT装作聪明的;聪明的)]

savoir faire n.才干;急智;手腕 [<F = know how to do]

savor v.有...味道;品尝

scabrous a.粗糙的;稍带猥亵的 [F scabreux or LL scabrosus<L scaber rough]

scads n.大量;巨额 [~s of money (guests)]

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