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托福考试词汇向导( 之一)


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Unit 1

aback ad.向后;逆帆 [A, BACK]

abaft ad.prep.在船尾;在...之后 [A + -baft <OE<BY+behind]

abandon v.放弃;放纵;遗弃 [ME<OF abandoner<under control ult<LL bannus, -um BAN]

abase v.降低;贬抑 [A-, baissier to lower ult<LL bassus short of stature): infl by] BASE

abash v.使局促不安 [bash; unabashed]

abate v.减少;减轻 [rebate 将<已付金额的一部分>予以折扣,回扣,退还]

abbey n.大修道院; 大教堂 [Abba上帝 abbacy 男修道院长(abbot)之职务(辖区,任期) abbess 女修道院院长;尼庵住持]

abbreviation n.缩短;缩写 [brevity 短暂;简短]

abdicate v.放弃权利;让位 [AB-, dicare declare]

abdomen n.腹;下腹 [abdominal adj.]

abduct v.绑架;拐走 [viaduct陆桥,高架桥 (道路,铁路)(<L. VIA(道)和 aqueDUCT(水道)的混合语]

abed ad.在床上 [A, BED ill(sick)~病卧床上 lie~躺在床上]

aberration n.离开正路;脱离常轨 [errant 错误的,偏离的;游历的;遍历危险的]

abet v.教唆;唆使 [bait(装于钓)上或陷阱中的钩饵]

abeyance n.中止;暂搁 [<OF abeer<to + beer<medL batare gape(因惊讶或赞许而)张口]

abhor v.憎恨;厌恶 [horrible]

abide v.容忍;忍受 [abide by 遵守<规则、法令、决定等>]

abject a.可怜的;卑鄙的 [reject]

abjure v.发誓断绝;公开放弃 [jurare; purjury]

ablution n.沐浴 [antediluvian 诺亚(Noah)洪水前的;太古的;过时的 (cf deluge)]

abnegate v.放弃权利;舍弃;戒禁快乐 [AB-, negare deny]

abnormal a.不正常的;变态的 [earlier and F anormal, anomal<Gk anomalos ANOMALOUS, assoc with L abnormis: ABNORMITY]

abode n.住所 [verbal noun of ABIDE: cf. ride, rode, road]

abolition n.废除;革除 [abolish]

abominate v.痛恨;痛恶 [ominous (omen 的形容词)不祥的;凶兆的]

aboriginal a.原始的;土著的 [ab+origin+al]

abortive a.失败的;无意的 [oriental; abort]

abound v.充满;富于 [abundant]

abrade v.摩擦;磨掉 [erase; abrasion (abrade的名词)(岩石的)剥蚀;(机械的)磨损]

abridge v.缩短;删节 [ME<OF abreg(i)er<LL abbreviare ABBREVIATE]

abrogate v.废止;取消 [interogative rogation (常 ~s)(基督教)(耶稣升天节前三天做的)祷告 rogatory 请求的;要求的]

abrupt a.突然的;意外的 [ab+rupt=rumpere]

abscond v.潜逃 [condiments 调味料(seasoning) (芥茉、胡椒等)]

absolve v.赦免;解除 [solution]

abstain v.戒除;禁绝 [tenere]

abstemious a.饮食有度;有节制的 [temetum]

abstinence n.禁食 [abs+tinence ABSTINENT]

abstracted a.心不在焉的 [intractable; abstract]

abstruse a.深奥的 [intrusion]

absurd a.不合理的;荒唐的 [AB-, surdus deaf, dull]

abundant a.丰富的;富裕的 [ME<OF abundance<L abundantia ABOUND]

abuse v.乱用;妄用 [ab+use disabuse 解除某人的迷惑;使醒悟]

abut v.紧邻;接靠 [a+but]

abyss n.深渊;地狱 [<Gk abussos bottomless A-, bussos depth]

accede v.同意 [ac+cede]

accelerate v.加速进行 [ac+celer+ate;concede]

accentuate v.重读;强调 [ac+cent=cant+uate;ACCENT;cantata(音乐)清唱剧]

accessible a.易接近的;易受影响的 [accessible or LL accessibilis; ACCEDE; access]

accessory n.附件;从犯 [ac+ces+sory;ACCEDE]

accidental a.偶然的;意外的 [E<LL accidentalis(ACCIDENT)]

acclaim v.欢呼;喝采 [ac+claim=clamare;clamorous吵闹的,喧嚷的; acclamation]

acclimate v.适应于新环境 [ac+climate CLIMATE acclamation]

acclivity n.向上的陡坡 [ac+cliv+ity proclivity]

accolade n.赞美;赏赐 [ac+col=collum+ade; collar]

accommodate v.供应;容纳 [ac+commodus; accommodating]

accomplice n.共犯;帮凶 [ME and F complice(prob by assoc with ACCOMPANY),<LL complex complicis confederate: cf] [COMPLICATE]

accord n.一致;符合 [ac+cord=cordis heart]

accost v.打招呼 [ac+cost=costa rib COAST]

accoutre v.供给服装;装备 [ac+coutre couture 女装业;女装设计师 couturier 女装设计师]

accredit v.相信;任命;归功于... [ac+cre+dit CREDIT]

accretion n.增大;添加 [ac+cret+tion accrue ACCRETE 生长;增大;合生]

accrue v.自然增加 [ac+crue增加]

accumulate v.积聚 [ac+cumul=cumulus堆积+ate]

accuse v.控告;归咎 [ac+cuse=CAUSE]

acephalous a.无头的 [a+cephal=kephale头+ous]

acerbity n.尖酸的言语或态度 [acerb尖,酸+ity acerbic尖刻的]

acetic a.酸的 [ace=acetum醋+ic]

achromatic a.无色的;消色的 [A-, CHROMATIC]

acidulous a.微酸的;克薄的 [acid酸+ulous多的]

acknowledge v.承认 [ac+KNOWLEDGE]

acme n.顶点;极至 [Gk, = highest point]

acoustics n.声学;传音性 [acoustic 听觉的;有关声音的]

acquaint v.告之;使熟悉 [ac+quiant知道=cognit come to know ACQUAINTANCE 熟人]

acquiescence n.默许的;顺从的 [ac+quiesce安静+nce;aquiescent顺从的 quiescent静止的]

acquisition n.获得;得到 [ACQUIRE acquisitive 贪得的;物质欲重的 requisite 必须品 acquisitiveness 渴望占有]

acquittal n.开释

acrid a.辛辣的;尖刻的 [irreg<L acer acris keen+-ID, prob after acid]

acrimonious a.尖酸的 [ACRIMONY 尖刻;剧烈]

acrophobia n.高处恐怖症 [acro=akron+PHOBIA]

activate v.使活动

actuarial a.保险统计(员)的 [ACTUAL actuary 保险公司计算员;法庭记录(员) actuate 激励]

actuate v.激励;促使 [ACTUAL]

acuminate a.锐利的;有尖头的 [L acuminatus pointed: ACUMEN]

acute a.灵敏的;急性的 [L acutus pp. of acuere sharpen<acus needle]

adage n.格言 [adagium ad+age]

adamant a.坚定不移的;固执的 [a+damant=daamao驯服]

adapt v.使适合 [ad+apt=aptus适合 adaptable有适应能力的 aptitude能力]

addendum n.补遗;追加物 [L, gerundive of addere ADD]

addiction n.沉迷;热中 [ADDICT ad+dict;addictive 使人上瘾的]

additive a.添加剂 [LL additivus: ADD]

addle a.混乱的;糊涂的 [addled头脑混乱的]

adduce v.引证;举出 [induce引诱]

adept a.老练的 [ad+ept能力 adopt 收养; adapt 适应]

adhere v.附着;坚持 [ad+here=haerere粘;adherent 拥护者,党徒]

adhibit v.容...进入;贴标签;采用 [AD-, habere have]

adipose a.多脂肪的 [同adeps adipis 胖的]

adjacent a.邻接的 [ad+jacent=jacere躺]

adjoin v.邻接;毗连 [AD-, jungere join]

adjourn v.延期;休会 [The court ~ed from Friday until Monday.]

adjudge v.判决;审查并颁给奖赏 [ME <OF ajuger <L adjudicare: ADJUDICATE]

adjudicate v.判决;宣判;裁定 [ad+judic=judicare to judge; judicious明智的]

adjunct n.附属物;助手 [ad+junct ADJOIN]

adjure v.命令;恳求 [ad+jure=jurare发誓]

adjutant n.副官;助手 [L adjutare frequent of adjuvare: ADJUVANT 辅助的;助手;辅药]

admeasure v.分配;测量 [AD-, MEASURE]

administer v.管理 [ad+, MINISTER]

admirable a.可钦佩的;美妙的 [ADMIRE]

admiral n.海军上将;鱼船队长 [<Arab. ’ amir commander (cf. AMIR), assoc. with ADMIRABLE]

admonish v.警告 [ad + mon = monere警告]

ado n.张惶;费力 [much ado->much a thing to do]

adobe n.泥砖;土坯 [a-do-be;abode住处]

adolescence n.青春期;年少

adopt v.收养;采纳 [option 选择]

adore v.崇拜;热爱 [oration 演讲 adoration 爱慕,崇拜 adorable 迷人的,可爱的]

adorn v.装饰 [ad+orn提供 suborn贿赂 adornment 装饰,装饰品]

adrift a.ad.漂泊;无一定职业的 [A + DRIFT]

adroit a.灵巧的 [a+droit右手的 maladroit笨的]

adulation n.奉承 [adulate谄媚奉承]

adulterate v.掺混 [L adulterare adulterat- corrupt]

adumbration n.预示 [intervention 干涉 umbrella雨伞 umbrage不快]

adversary n.对手;敌手 [ADVERSE adversity灾难]

adverse a.逆的;相反的;不利的 [AD-, vertere vers- turn]

adversity n.灾难;不幸 [L adversitas -tatis;ADVERSE]

advert v.谈及

advisable a.适当的;可行的 [advisable=sensible advisory 劝告的 unadvised 轻率的]

advocate v.提倡;拥护 [ad+vocate=vocare 号召,叫]

aegis n.保护 [aigis 宙斯或雅典娜的盾]

aeon n.极长的时间;永久 [同eon eonian亦作aeonian永世的;无穷的eonism易装变态]

aerate v.空气;让空气进入 [L aer AIR + -ATE, after F aerer aero 航空的;飞行器的]

aerial a.天线 [L aerius <Gk aerios <aer air]

aesthetic a.美学的;审美的 [aesthetics 美学 aesthete 审美家 anaesthetic 麻醉药 ana=not]

afar ad.在远方 [ME <A-+ FAR; ~ off 遥远地方的. from ~ 由远方]

affable a.和蔼的;友善的 [AD-, fari speak]

affect v.影响;假装;爱好 [How will the decision ~ us? 这项决定会给我们什么样的影响?]

affected a.造作的;不自然的 [affectation做作,虚假 affection友爱;感人的 affectionate挚爱的 unaffected不矫揉造作的;自然的]

affection n.爱情;疾病;影响 [ME<OF<L affectio -onis(AFFECT)]

affectionate a.情深的 [med.L affectionatus (AFFECTION)]

afferent a.输入的 [AD-, ferre bring]

affiance n.信用;婚约;订婚 [AD-, fidus trusty]

affidavit n.宣誓书 [perfidy不忠,背叛 AFFIANCE婚约,定婚]

affiliation n.入会;加入 [filial子女的 AFFILIATE加入,联合]

affinity n.吸引力;密切之关系 [affine姻亲 affined 姻亲的;同盟的]

affirmation n.证言;无宣誓供述 [AFFIRM 断言,确认,肯定 affirmative赞成的,肯定的]

affix v.附加物 [AD-, figere fix- fix]

afflatus n.灵感 [AD-, flare flat- to blow]

afflict v.使苦恼;折磨

affliction n.痛苦;折磨 [conflict冲突]

affluent a.丰富的;富饶的 [ME<OF<L affluere(AD-, fluere flux- flow)]

affranchise v.恢复自由;释放 [ENFRANCHISE, with prefix A-]

affray n.骚动;打架 [af+ fray(衣物)磨损;紧张]

affront v.冒犯;侮辱 [effrontery 厚颜无耻]

afield ad.在野外;离乡背井

afloat ad.在海上;票据流通

afore ad.prep(在)前方

Unit 2

afresh ad.重新;再

aftermath n.不幸事件之后;余波 [after-math]

agape a.张口惊视的 [a+gape 裂开,张嘴]

agenda n.议程 [agility 灵活,敏捷]

agent n.代理人;管理人;代办人 [a commission ~ 委托贩卖商,批发商 a forwarding ~ 运送者,运输业者 a secret (confidential) ~ 密探]

agglomerate v.一堆;结块 [glomerulus 小球,血管小球]

aggrandize v.加大 [grandeur 雄伟]

aggravate v.加重;恶化 [gravity庄重]

aggregate n.集合;总数 [gregarious喜社交的 aggregation聚集,总和]

aggressive a.好斗的;进取的 [egress出口]

aggrieved a.因受伤而不平的;痛心的 [grievous令人悲痛的;伤势严重的]

aghast a.恐怖的;惊骇的 [GHASTLY可怕的;惊人的 gast恐惧 ghost魔鬼 ghast=gast=ghost]

agility n.动作敏捷;机智 [agile灵活的,轻快的]

agitate v.煽动 [ag做+itate表示不断的动作 agitated被鼓动的,不安的 agitation鼓动,焦虑]

aglow a.发红的 [glow 发光;发热;热情]

agnostic n.不可知论者 [diagnostic诊断的 agnosticism不可知论 Agnus Dei(<L. ’lamb of God’)耶稣基督的别名]

agog a.兴奋的;有强烈兴趣的 [F en gogues<en in + pl of gogue fun]

agonize v.使受苦;使苦闷 [agony极大痛苦 agonizing引起极大痛苦的]

agony n.烦恼;顶峰 [(<G."比赛")agony aunt 答覆读者来函专栏女作家]

agrarian a.土地的;农业的 [L agrarius<ager agri field]

agreement n.协议;符合;同意 [ME<OF(AGREE)]

agronomist n.农学家 [agro土地+nom学科+ist]

aground ad.在地上;搁浅

ail v.使受病痛;使苦恼 [ail=egle小病 ailment不严重的疾病]

ailment n.疾病

airborne a.空气传播的;空降的

airtight a.密封的

aisle n.过道;走廊 [ME ele, ile <L ala wing: confused with island and F aile wing]

ajar ad.门微开;不调和地

akin a.血族关系的;类似的 [a+kin 亲戚,血源关系]

alabaster a.雪白的 [ME<OF alabastre<L alabaster, -trum,<Gk alabast(r)os]

alacrity n.乐意;欣然;敏捷 [L alacritas<alacer brisk]

albeit conj.虽然 [al+beit albite n.曹长石,苏打长石 L albus white + -ITE]

alchemy n.炼金术 [al=the+chemy=khemia冶炼术 chemis-try化学]

alcove n.凹室;壁龛 [<al the + kubba vault(<L."转动,滚动")拱顶;穹窿;储藏室;墓室]

ale n.麦酒 [alewife n.啤酒店女主人 <17世纪的aloofe]

alga n.海藻;藻类 [algae 海藻;藻类 algaecide 亦作 algicide 除海藻的药]

algebra n.代数学 [It. & Sp. & med.L, <Arab. al-jabr <al the + jabr reunion of broken parts <jabara reunite]

alias n.别名 [at another time, other wise]

alibi n.不在犯罪现场证明;辩词 [elsewhere]

alienate v.离间 [alien+nate 由ALIEN外国人而来 alienated疏远的,被隔开的]

alienist n.精神病医师 [ALIEN+ist]

alight v.降下;落在

alimentary a.食物的;营养的 [ALIMENT 食物,营养品]

alimentation n.营养

alimony n.离婚赡养费;扶养费 [L alimonia nutriment <alere nourish]

alkali n.碱 [ME<medL,<Arab al-kali calcined ashes<kala fry]

allay v.使缓和;使镇静 [al+LAY摆放 ally同盟]

allege v.声称;宣称 [ALLEGATION(无证据)指控 illegal不合法的 allegiance忠诚]

allegiance n.忠贞;忠实

[E<AF<OF ligeance(LIEGE): perh assoc with ALLIANCE(ally 的名词)(为共同目标而结的)联盟;同盟 关系

allegory n.讽喻;寓言 [ME<OF allegorie<Gk allegoria<allos other + -agoria speaking]

allergy n.过敏症;厌恶 [allergic过敏的,对讨厌的 ergo-phobia厌工作症]

alleviate v.减轻痛苦;缓和 [levity轻率]

alley n.小巷;小径 [ME<OF alee walking, passage<aler go<L ambulare walk]

alligator n.水陆两用战车;短吻鳄 [Sp el lagarto the lizard<L lacerta]

allocate v.拨下;留下 [allocation拨给,分配 location地点]

allopath n.用对症疗法的医生 [同allopathist = ALLOPATHY ] [allopathic 对症疗法的 homeopathic顺势疗法的]

alloy n.合金 [unalloyed 未搀杂的;纯粹的]

allude v.暗指;提及 [ludicrous嬉笑的,可笑的 allusion暗示]

allure v.引诱 [al+luere=LURE诱饵,魅力 allurement诱惑物]

allusion n.暗示;暗讽;引谕;引述 [ALLUDE) in ~ to 暗指,暗示. v.allude]

alluvial a.冲积的 [alluvium 冲积土]

ally n.盟国;支持者 [perh dimin of ALABASTER 雪花石膏(制)的;白润光滑的]

alms n.施舍;周济;布施 [OE ’lmysse, -messe,< <eleemon(adj)<eleos compassion]

aloof a.远离的;不接近的 [a+loof= LUFF逆风而行]

alpine a.高山的;阿尔卑斯山的 [L Alpinus: ALP]

alteration n.变更;改造 [altercation 口角,激辩,争吵]

alternate v.轮流 [(常与with连用) alternus交替 alter其它]

altitude n.高度;海拔 [ME<L altitudo<altus high]

altruism n.利他主义 [altru=alter其它+ism]

alumnus n.学生;毕业生校友 [L, = nursling, pupil< alere nourish]

amalgamate v.混合;合并 [AMALGAM混合物 AMASS积聚]

amanuensis n.笔记者;文书 [L<(servus)a manu secretary + -ensis belonging to]

amass v.积累;收集

amateurish a.业余的;不熟练的 [(反professional) theatricals票友戏 AMATEUR业余爱好者 morous多情的 L amator -oris lover]

amatory a.恋爱的;色情的

amazon n.女战士

[<G."无乳房"; 传说古时亚马逊女战士为拉弓射箭之便割除右乳房) Amazon(希)亚马逊族女战士(住 在黑海边)

ambidextrous a.十分灵巧的 [LL ambidexter<ambi- on both sides + dexter right-handed]

ambiguity n.暧昧;含糊话 [L ambiguitas(AMBIGUOUS)]

ambiguous a.含糊的 [ambiguity模棱两可]

ambivalent a.好恶参半的 [valiant勇敢的 ambivalence矛盾心理 G Ambivalenz <L ambo both, after equivalence, -ency ambivalence] [爱憎感情并存]

amble n.徐行;缓行 [amble=ambul走路 ambulence救护车 ample丰富的]

ambulatory a.可走动的;行走的 [ambula走+tory perambulate走过;徘徊于 L perambulare perambulat-(PER-, ambulare walk)]

ambush v.埋伏 [ME<OF <a Rmc form = ’put in a wood’: rel to BUSH]

ameliorate v.改善,改良 [alt. of MELIORATE after F ameliorer]

amenable a.有服从义务的;愿服从的 [a+ men= mener驱赶动物]

amend v.修正;订正 [ME<OF amender ult.<L emendare EMEND]

amendment n.改正;修正 [amends赔偿,补偿]

amenity n.适意;礼仪 [amen-ity=pleasant]

amiable a.和蔼可亲的;悦人的 [强调人自身具备的性格和蔼 =lovable]

amicable a.友善的 [LL amicabilis<amicus friend]

amid prep.在其中;在其间 [ME amidde(s)<OE on ON + MID]

amigo n.朋友 [amiga 女性朋友]

amiss a.错;有毛病的 [ME prob<ON mis so as to miss<on + mis rel to MISS]

amity n.和好;和睦 [ami=amicus朋友+ty]

amnesia n.健忘症 [amnesty 大赦]

amnesty n.大赦 [F amnestie or L<Gk amnestia oblivion]

amoral a.非道德的;不属道德的 [a+MORAL immoral不道德的,淫荡的]

amorist n.好色之徒;爱情小说作者 [L amor or F amour + -IST]

amorous a.易动情的;情爱的 [AMOR爱+our]

amorphous a.无定型的 [metamorphose变形]

amortization n.分期偿还 [immortal不朽的]

amphibian a.水陆两栖的 [amphi两者,两侧,周围+bian]

amphitheater n.圆形剧场 [amphi周围+THEATER剧场]

ample a.充足的 [ampl=amplus大,多+e amble散步 amplify放大]

amplify v.扩大 [AMPLE+fy amplitude广阔,丰富]

amplitude n.广阔;振幅 [ampli=AMPLE+tude]

amputate v.切断;剪切 [amputee截肢者]

amuck ad.疯狂地

amulet n.护身符 [amu-let]

anabolism n.同化作用 [Gk anabole ascent(ANA-, ballo throw)]

anachronism n.时代错误 [chronicle编年史]

analgesic a.止痛的 [nostalgia怀旧]

analogous a.类似的 [prologue序言]

anarchy n.无政府状态;混乱 [anarchic无政府的]

anathema n.诅咒;讨厌的人或物 [ecclL, = excommunicated person, excommunication,<Gk anathema thing devoted,(later)accursed] [thing,<anatithemi set up]

anatomy n.解剖;解剖学 [ana+tomy]

ancestor n.祖先;先驱者 [ANTE-, cedere cess- go]

anchorite n.隐士;隐居修道的 [ancho 铁锚 rite 仪式]

ancillary a.辅助的;附属的 [<ancilla女仆]

anecdote n.逸话;轶事

[AN-, ekdotos<ekdidomi publish) anecdotage 逸话(集);(戏)(好谈往事的)老年(与dotage (老耋) 接合而 带谐虐意味)

anemia n.贫血 [anemic 贫血的;衰弱的,无精打采的]

anesthetic n.麻醉剂 [anesthetize 麻醉;使麻痹 aesthetic美学]

angle n.角;见地;观点;钓鱼 [an acute (obtuse) ~ 锐(钝)角 take the ~ 测量角度 He looked at the problem only from his own ~.]

anguish n.极大痛苦 [angu痛苦+ish anguished很痛苦的 ANGER]

animadvert v.批评;责备 [L animadvertere<animus mind + advertere (AD-, vertere vers- turn) animadversion批评;非难]

animalcule n.微生物 [anim气息,心,生命 animism万物有灵论]

animated a.活生生的 [anim生命+ated magnanimous大度的 animation活泼,卡通]

animosity n.仇恨 [anim生命 +osity]

animus n.恶意;意图 [L, = spirit, mind]

ankle n.脚脖子;踝 [ME<ON ankul-(unrecorded)<Gmc: rel to ANGLE]

annals n.纪年表;历史记载 [自annus而来,意为年]

anneal v.锻炼(金属、玻璃等) [an表趋向+ne+al火]

annex v.附加 [an表趋向+nex捆绑]

annihilate v.消灭 [nehilism虚无]

annotate v.注解 [annotation注解 connotation内涵]

annoyance n.烦恼;为难的事

annual a.一年的;每年的,一年生的 [ME<OF annuel<LL annualis<L annalis< annus year]

annuity n.年金;养老金 [annui=annuus年+ty ANNUAL annuitant领受养老金者]

annul v.废止;宣告无效 [ME<OF anuller<LL annullare(AD-, nullus none)]

anomalous a.反常的;不规则的 [anomaly 反常]

anon ad.不久;立刻 [<OE on an into one,记an-on或anonymous; anonymous的缩写]

anonymous a.无名的;匿名的 [anomymity无名,匿名 synonym同义字 antonym反义词]

antagonism n.敌对 [ANTAGONIST敌手,对手]

antecedence n.居先;在前 [recede 后退]

antedate v.在信上写上较早日期 [ante- {字首}表示"前的"之意]

antediluvian a.原始的;大水前的 [ante+diluvi=diluvium= DELUGE洪水+an]

antenna n.触角;天线 [拉丁 = sail-yard]

anterior a.较早的;以前的 [ante-rior anteriority 居先;在前]

anthem n.圣歌;赞美歌 [national anthem]

anthology n.诗集;文选 [anthesis开花期]

anthropoid a.似人类的;似猿的 [anthropo人,人类+id似 misanthrope厌世者]

anthropology n.人类学 [anthropophagous 吃人的]

anthropomorphic a.神人同形的 [anthropo+morph+ic anthropomorphous 有人形的,有人性的]

Unit 3

antibiotic n.抗生素;抗菌的 [<F antibiotique; ANTI-,GK biotikos适合于生命的 <bios生命]

antibody n.抗体 [anti-BODY]

antic a.古怪的;笨拙的 [antics滑稽的动作 ANTIQUE古董 attic阁楼]

anticipate v.预期;期待 [anticipatory预期的 precipitate加速;沉淀]

anticlimax n.令人泄气的转变 [anti-climax]

antidote n.解毒药 [DOTE老年痴呆 DOSE药剂 overdose药剂过量]

antielectron n.反电子;正电子

antigen n.抗原 [ANTIBODY, -GEN]

antipathy n.憎恶 [<GK antipathes 憎恶; ANTI-, pathos -eos 感情]

antipodal a.正相反的 [anti+podal]

antiquated a.陈旧的;过时的 [<ANTIQUE antiquity古老,高龄]

antique a.古代的 [F antique or L antiquus, anticus former, ancient<ante before]

antiques n.古董

antiquity n.古旧;古代;古代的人 [< L antiquitas -tatis<antiquus: ANTIQUE]

antiseptic n.消毒剂;防腐剂 [septic 有菌的,感染的]

antisocial a.厌恶社交的 [anti-SOCIAL]

antithesis n.相反;对照;对偶 [Gk antitithemi set against (ANTI-, tithemi place)]

antonym n.反义词 [ANTI-, SYNONYM]

anvil n.铁砧 [OE anfilte etc]

apathetic a.冷淡的 [APATHY, after PATHETIC 可怜的;悲惨的;无价值的]

apathy n.冷淡;漠不关心 [F apathie<apathes without feeling<a- not+pathos suffering]

aperitif n.开胃酒 [F aperitif<medL aperitivus<L aperire to open]

aperture n.孔;开口 [APERITIF开胃酒]

apex n.顶点;最高点 [a+ peak顶峰]

aphorism n.格言;警语 [adage格言 maxim公理,格言]

apiary n.养蜂场;蜂房 [aviary养鸟场 apiculture养蜂业]

apiculture n.养蜂 [L apis bee, after AGRICULTURE]

apiece ad.每人;每个 [cost ten cents ~ 每个一角 A + PIECE]

aplomb n.沉着 [a+plomb 坠垂直线的铅锤 PLUMMET]

apocalyptic a.启示的;天启的 [APOCALYPSE启示,启示录 apogee远地点 ME<OF ult<Gk apokalupsis<apokalupto uncover, reveal]

apocryphal a.真伪可疑的;作者不明的 [apo远+cryph隐藏+al apocrypha伪经 cryptic隐藏的,秘密的 apocrypha 旁经;伪经]

apogee n.远地点;最高点 [apo远+gee地球 peri-gee近地点 geo-logy地质学 geo=gee]

apologize v.道歉 [apo-log-ize apologetic道歉的;歉意的]

apologue n.寓言 [F apologue <Gk apologos story(APO-, logos discourse)]

apolune n.远月点 [(月卫轨道最远点;反perilune) APO-+L luna moon, after apogee]

apostate n.背教者;脱党者 [APOSTASY叛教,脱党]

apothecary n.药剂师 [apothec= apotheke储藏间+ary]

apothegm n.格言 [apo+the+gm]

apotheosis n.神圣的理想;神化之物 [ap+theos神+is theology神学 deify神化]

appall v.使惊骇 [appallling可怕的]

apparatus n.器具;器官;组织 [L <apparare apparat- make ready for]

apparel n.精制的衣服 [appar+el;apparent明显的]

apparition n.幽灵 [ME<F apparition or<L apparitio attendance(APPEAR)]

appeal v.恳请;呼吁 [ME<OF apel, apeler<L appellare to address]

appease v.抚慰;使平静 [ME<AF apeser, OF apaisier<a to+pais PEACE]

appellate a.控诉的;上诉的 [L appellatus(APPEAL, -ATE) appellant n.上诉人;a.控诉的]

appellation n.称号;名称 [ME<OF<L appellatio -onis(APPEAL, -ATION)]

append v.附加 [L appendere hang appendage 附加物]

appetence n.欲望;性欲;本能 [F appetence or L appetentia <appetere seek after]

appetite n.胃口;食欲 [appetizing开胃的]

applicable a.生效的;适合的 [APPLY]

apposite a.适当的 [L appositus pp. of apponere(AD-, ponere put)]

appraise v.鉴定 [APPRIZE by assim to PRAISE]

appreciable a.明显的;重要的 [perceptible感觉到的 appreciative 感谢的;赞赏的]

apprehend v.理解;逮捕;忧惧 [prehensile能抓住的apprehensive 焦虑的;悟性好的]

apprehension n.挂念;忧虑;逮补 [APPREHEND, -ION]

apprise v.通知 [F appris -ise pp. of apprendre learn, teach(APPREHEND)]

approachable a.可靠近的;随和的 [reproach指责 reapproach再接近 reproachable应受责备的]

approbation n.许可;承认 [APPROBATE通过;许可;称赞; -ATION]

appropriate v.拨款;盗用;恰当的 [LL appropriatus pp. of appropriare(AD-, proprius own)]

approximate v.近似;近似的 [AD-, proximus very near]

appurtenance n.(土地上)附属物 [APPERTAIN 附属,关系,适合, -ANCE]

apron n.围裙 [ME naperon etc<OF dimin of nape table-cloth<L mappa: for loss of n cf ADDER 加者,计算者 = adding] [machine]

apropos ad.恰好地 [F propos<to+propos PURPOSE 目的;计划;意图]

aptitude n.才能;性向 [F<LL aptitudo -inis(APT, -TUDE)apt易于;恰当的]

aquaplane n.滑水板;滑水板游戏 [<L aqua 水 + PLANE]

aquarelle n.水彩画;水彩画法 [<Ita. acquarella= water-colour 水彩; <L aqua 水]

aquatic a.水生的;水中的 [aqueous 水的]

aqueduct n.高驾渠;渡槽 [L aquae ductus conduit<aqua water + ducere duct- to lead]

aquiline a.钩状的;似鹰的 [L aquilinus<aquila eagle]

arabesque a.阿拉伯式的 [F<It arabesco<arabo Arab]

arable a.适于耕种的;可开垦的 [F arable or L arabilis<arare to plough 耕地,田;北斗七星]

arbiter n.仲裁人 [arbitrator公断人]

arbitrary a.武断的 [L arbitrarius or F arbitraire(ARBITER, -ARY)arbitrate仲裁,公断]

arbitrator n.仲裁人;审判者 [ARBITRATION仲裁,公断, arbitrate 仲裁 L arbitrari judge]

arboreal a.树的;木本的 [L arboreus arboretum 植物园]

arcade n.骑楼 [F<Prov arcada or It arcata<Rmc: rel to ARCH]

arcane a.神秘的;秘密的 [F arcane or L arcanus<arcere shut up<arca chest]

archaeology n.考古学 [<Gk arkhaiologia ancient history(ARCHAEAN, -LOGY)]

archaic a.古代的;已不通用的 [F archaique<Gk arkhaikos(ARCHAEAN)]

archetype n.原形 [L archetypum<Gk arkhetupon(ARCH-, tupos stamp)]

archipelago n.列岛 [It arcipelago<Gk arkhi- chief+pelagos sea(orig = the Aegean Sea)]

archives n.档案;档案保存处

ardent a.热心的;热烈的 [ardor 的形容词 an ~ patriot 满腔热忱的爱国者]

ardor n.热心 [<L."热(度)")with ~ 热心地]

arduous a.费力的;艰巨的 [L arduus steep, difficult]

arena n.竞技场 [L(h)arena sand, sand-strewn place of combat]

argonaut n.冒险家;投机者;叛徒 [(希腊神话)亚哥号上的人员(与Jason同乘亚哥号(the Argo)船前往科基斯(Colchis)寻找金羊毛(the] [Golden Fleece)之一行人)]

argot n.暗语 [argosy 大商船;大商船队]

arid a.干燥的;干燥无味的 [F aride or L aridus <arere be dry aridly 贫瘠地]

aright ad.正;正确地

aristocrat n.贵族 [<F aristocrate ARISTOCRATIC贵族政治的;主张贵族统治的]

arithmetic n.算术;算术的 [<Gk arithmetike(tekhne)art of counting<arithmos number]

ark n.方舟;笨重难看的船 [OE <L arca chest]

armada n.舰队 [arm=ARMY+ada舰队]

armament n.军备;武器;装备 [ARM, -MENT]

armistice n.休战;停战 [truce 停战;休止;中止]

armory n.武器制造厂;室内教练场 [armor plate (军舰、战车等的)装甲板]

aroma n.芳香;气派,风格 [L<Gk aroma -atos spice]

aromatic a.芳香的 [(AROMA, -IC)aroma芳香,气派,风格 L <Gk aroma -atos spice]

arraign v.提讯;控告 [ME<AF (ult AD-, L ratio -onis reason, discourse)]

arrant a.极端的;完全的 [ME, var of ERRANT]

array v.排列 [ME<AF araier, OF areer ult<a Gmc root, = prepare]

arrears n.债;欠债 [AD-, retro backwards: arrear(<L."在后")(工作、付款)延误]

arrest v.阻止;遏止 [~ the spread of the fire 阻止火势的蔓延 arrestant 制虫剂]

arrogance n.自大;傲慢 [arrogant自大的;傲慢的]

arrogate v.冒称;霸占 [L arrogare arrogat-(AD-, rogare ask)]

arson n.非法纵火;放火 [arsonist纵火犯ardent热情的ars=ard ;ars艺术arse屁股;闲荡]

articulate v.清楚说话;接合 [L articulatus(ARTICLE, -ATE)]

artifacts n.史前古器物 [artificer 技师;工匠 artificial不自然的,虚假的]

artifice n.策略;诡计 [<ars artis art, -ficium making<facere make artifact手工艺品]

artisan n.工匠 [F<It artigiano, ult<L artitus pp. of artire instruct in the arts]

artless a.粗俗的;自然的

ascend v.上升;攀爬 [ascendancy统治者,支配力量 ascent上升 descend下降]

ascendant a.上升的;优越的

ascertain v.确定 [ME<OF acertener, stem acertain-<to+CERTAIN]

ascetic a.苦行的 [<asketes monk<askeo exercise asceticism 禁欲主义,苦行生活]

ascribe v.归于 [ME<L ascribere(AD-, scribere script- write)]

aseptic a.无菌的 [anti-sept-ic抗菌药]

ashen a.灰色的

asinine a.愚鲁的 [asin= asinus驴子ASS+ine]

askance ad.斜视地

askew ad.斜地 [A+SKEW歪曲,歪斜,弯曲]

aslope a.ad.成斜坡;倾斜

asp n.毒蛇;埃及产眼镜蛇 [ME <OF aspe or L aspis <Gk n.= aspen 白杨;似白杨的;颤抖的]

aspen n.白杨;白杨似的;摇晃的 [earlier name asp + -EN forming adj. taken as noun asp毒蛇]

asperity n.粗暴;艰苦 [ME<OF asperite or L asperitas<asper rough prosperity繁荣]

asperse v.诽谤 [(AD-, spargere sprinkle)aspersion中伤;(天主教)洒水]

aspirant n.热望者 [F aspirant or<L aspirant- (PIRE(<L."对呼气")渴望,一心]

aspiration n.抱负 [ME<OF aspiration ASPIRATE把发成h音;抽出(液体或气体)]

aspire v.热望,怀大志,切望 [ME<F aspirer or L aspirare< ad to + spirare breathe]

asquint a.ad.斜视;斜的 [ME perh. <Du. schuinte slant]

assail v.攻击 [AD-, salire salt- leap]

assassin n.刺客 [F assassin or <med.L assassinus <Arab. hassas hashish-eater]

assault n.突然袭击;猛袭 [as+sault=sail]

assay v.分析;试验 [ME<OF assaier, assai, var of essayer, essai;ESSAY]

assemble v.聚集 [<L ad to+simul together. assemblage 集合;集合物]

assent v.同意;赞成 [ME<OF asenter, as(s)ente ult<L assentari(ad to, sentire think)]

assert v.断言;主张 [assertive 言语果敢的;断言的 assertion 主张;断言,确言]

assess v.估定;定...额;评价;估价 [~ a tax at 10 pounds; ~ a statement at its true worth]

asset n.财产;可取之处 [as-set]

asseverate v.断言 [L asseverare(AD-, severus serious)]

assiduous a.勤勉的 [L assiduus(SESS)assidulity勤勉,励精]

assimilate v.吸收 [ME<L assimilare(AD-, similis like)]

assize n.裁判;法定价格 [ME <OF as(s)ise, fem. pp. of aseeir sit at, <ASSESS]

assonance n.类音;类韵;母韵 [AD-, sonus sound]

assort v.分类;配齐;相交 [OF assorter <a to + sorte SORT. assorted 组合的,各色俱备的]

assuage v.平息;减轻 [ME<OF as(s)ouagier ult<L suavis sweet; unassuaged 未缓和的]

assumption n.担任;假设 [ME<OF asompsion or L assumptio(SUME, -ION)]

assure v.确告 [assured自信的assurance自信;保证 reassure使安心]

astir a.ad.骚动;活动;兴奋 [A + STIR n.骚动;传播;流行]

astound v.使...大吃一惊,惊愕 [obs. astound (adj.) = astoned pp. of obs. astone: ASTONISH]

astral a.星的;多星的 [LL astralis<astrum star]

astray a.迷路的;误入歧途的 [a+STRAY走离]

Unit 4

astringent a.收敛性的;止血的 [stringent 严格的;严厉的]

astrolabe n.星盘

astrology n.占星学 [ASTRO-, -LOGY]

astute a.机敏的;狡猾的 [obs F astut or L astutus<astus craft]

asunder ad.散开;碎散;分别 [OE on sundran into pieces: cf SUNDER分为二,分开,切开]

asylum n.收容所;避难所 [ME<Gk asulon refuge<a- not + sulon right of seizure捕捉,扣押]

asymmetric a.不均匀的;不对称的

atheistic a.无神论者的 [atheism无神论]

athirst a.渴;渴望 [OE ofthyrst for ofthyrsted pp. of ofthyrstan be thirsty]

athlete n.比赛者,运动家;强壮的人 [L athleta<Gk athletes< athleo contend for a prize (athlon)]

athletics n.pl.运动 [athlete运动员]

athwart ad.横穿过去;不顺利地 [A+THWART(<古北欧语"横过")妨碍,反对,使挫折]

atlas n.地图集 [L<Gk Atlas -antos a Titan who held up the pillars of the universe, whose picture appeared at the beginning] of [early atlases]

atomy n.微小之物;原子;矮人 [ANATOMY剖析;解剖学;骨骸 taken as an atomy]

atonal a.无调的

atone v.补偿;赎罪 [back-form<ATONEMENT 赎罪 at one + -MENT, after medL adunamentum and earlier onement<obs] [one(v)unite]

atrocious a.凶暴的;残酷的 [L atrox -ocis cruel atrocity暴行]

atrophy v.使衰退;使萎缩 [F atrophie or LL atrophia<Gk<a- not+trophe food]

attach v.附上,贴上;使属于 [ME<OF estachier fasten<Gmc: in Law sense thr. OF atachier]

attachment n.附着;依恋;逮捕;扣押 [ME<F attachement<attacher(ATTACH, -MENT)]

attainment n.成就;造诣;学识

attentive a.注意周到的;倾听的 [ME<F<attente, OF atente, fem pp. of atendre ATTEND]

attenuate v.使变细;使弱 [AD-, tenuis thin]

attest v.证明;证实 [AD-, testis witness]

attic n.阁楼 [F attique, as ATTIC古怪的: orig a small order above a taller one]

attire n.服装;盛装;打扮 [ME<OF atir(i)er equip<a tire in order]

attorney n.代理人;律师 [ME<OF atorne pp. of atorner assign<to+torner turn]

attribute n.品性 [<L attribuere attribut-(AD-, tribuere assign)]

attrition n.摩擦;磨损 [ME<LL attritio<atterere attrit- rub]

attune v.使合拍调;使调和 [AT-+TUNE]

atypical a.非典型的;不正常的

auction v.n.拍卖;拍卖人 [L auctio increase, auction<augere auct- increase]

audacious a.大胆的;目中无人的 [L audax -acis bold<audere dare audacity胆识;大胆;无耻]

audible a.听得见的,可听见的 [LL audibilis< audire hear. audibility 听得见,可听性]

audience n.听众;观众 [<audire hear]

audit n.检查(项目) [ME<audire audit- hear audition听觉;试听(歌手等)]

auditorium n.听众席,观众席;大讲堂 [L neut. of auditorius (adj.): AUDITORY, -ORIUM]

augment v.增加 [ME<OF augment(n), <L augere increase]

augury n.占兆 [ME<OF augurie or L augurium<AUGUR]

august a.堂堂的;威风凛凛的 [F auguste or L augustus consecrated, venerable]

aural a.耳的;听觉的 [L auris ear auricular耳的;听觉的;耳语的]

aureate a.金色的;灿烂的 [ME<LL aureatus<L aureus golden<aurum gold]

aureole n.光环 [ME<L aureola(corona), = golden(crown), fem of aureolus]

auroral a.北极光的 [AURORA 极光;夜晚女神]

auscultation n.听诊 [L auscultatio<auscultare listen to]

auspice n.前兆;赞助;资助 [under the ~s of the company = under the company orig ’observation of bird-flight in divination’:<auspex] [observer avis bird. auspicate 开张;开幕式]

auspicious a.幸运的 [(auspice 的形容词)an ~ sign 吉兆 auspicial 占卜的;幸运的]

austere a.苛刻的 [ME<OF<Gk austeros severe austerity严格,朴素;节约生活]

austral a.南方的;向南的 [ME<L australis<Auster south wind]

authentic a.可信的,确实的,真正的 [ME<OF autentique<Gk authentikos principal, genuine]

authenticate v.证实;鉴定;使生效 [medL authenticare: AUTHENTIC确实的,可信的]

authoritative a.权威的;可靠的 [authorization 授权;委任;认可,授权书]

authorize v.授权;委任;认为正当 [e<auctor: AUTHOR authoritative权威的authorization授权]

autocrat n.独裁者 [AUTO-, kratos power autocracy独裁政治]

autodidact n.自学者 [AUTO- + didact as DIDACTIC]

automatism n.自动;自动作用 [<automate AUTOMATON自动机械装置;机器人(robot)]

automaton n.自动机器;机器人 [L, neut of automatos acting of itself: AUTO- automatism自动]

autonomous a.自主的 [AUTONOMY自制,自制团体 auto自己+nomous法律]

autopsy n.验尸 [F autopsie or modL autopsia<Gk<autoptes eye-witness]

autotelic a.自己本身具有目的的 [AUTO- + Gk telos end]

auxiliary n.a.帮助者;辅助的 [L auxiliarius<auxilium help]

avail v.利益;效用 [ME <obs. vail (v.) <OF valoir be worth <L valere]

avalanche n.雪崩;涌至 [F, alt of dial lavanche after avaler descend]

avarice n.贪婪 [ME<OF<L avaritia<avarus greedy avaricious贪婪的]

avatar n.神之化身;具体化 [Skr avatara descent<va down+tr- pass over]

avenge v.报仇;复仇 [<L vindicare vindicate(<L."要求")证明<某人>无辜或清白]

aver v.断言 [ME<OF averer(AD-, L verus true) averment 断言,主张;申辩]

averse a.不愿意的;反对的 [L aversus(AVERT)aversion嫌恶,反感;讨厌的人]

avert v.避开;掉开 [ME<L avertere(AB-, vertere vers- turn): partly<OF avertir<Rmc]

aviary n.鸟的小屋;禽舍 [avi鸟+ary场所 aviatrix女飞行员 avian 鸟类的]

aviate v.用飞机飞行 [back-form. <AVIATION]

aviculture n.养鸟;鸟类饲养 [L avis bird, after AGRICULTURE]

avid a.贪婪的;渴望的 [F avide or L avidus<avere crave]

avocation n.副业;嗜好 [L avocatio<avocare call away]

avouch v.保证;确说 [ME<OF avochier<L advocare(AD-, vocare call)]

avow v.公开承认 [ME<OF avouer acknowledge(AD-, vocare call) avowal声明,承认]

avuncular a.如叔(伯)父的 [L avunculus maternal uncle, dimin of avus grandfather]

await v.等待;准备作...之用 [AD-, waitier WAIT]

awe n.敬畏 [ME age<ON agi<Gmc awe-inspiring令人起敬畏心(恐怖心)的]

awhile ad.暂时;暂且 [OE ane hwile a while]

awning n.雨篷;凉篷 [awning window 遮蓬窗 awn(麦等之)芒(beard)]

awry ad.歪;斜;错误地 [ME<A+WRY(一时)不高兴的;皱眉的;讽刺的]

axiom n.定理 [<axios worthy axiomatic公理的;格言的]

axiomatic a.公理的;通则的 [axiom(数学逻辑)公理 axiom of choice (数)选择公理]

axle n.轮轴;轴;车轴 [axle-tree<ME axel-tre<ON]

azure a.天青色的 [ME<OF asur, azur, <Arab al the+lazaward]

babble v.唠叨 [ME<MLG babbelen, or imit]

baccalaureate n.学士学位;告别训辞 [<L baccalaureatus <baccalaureus bachelor]

bacchanalian a.饮酒狂欢的 [<Bacchus god of wine bacchant酒徒Bacchae酒神Bacchus女伴]

backbite v.背后诽谤 [backbiting 诽谤;背后造谣中伤]

backlog n.积压订货;蓄积;预备 [backblocks人烟稀少的backboard篮板 backbreaker 艰苦的工作,]

bacteria n.pl.细菌;传染菌

badge n.v.徽章;标记;象徵

badger v.獾;困扰;小贩 [<BADGE徽章;标记, with ref to its white forehead mark ] [badger game美人计 Badger State (the ~)美国威斯康辛州别称]

badinage n.嘲弄;揶揄;开玩笑 [F<badiner to joke]

baffle v.使迷惑;阻挠 [F bafouer ridicule, OF beffer mock baffling阻碍的;使困惑]

bail n.保释金;担保

bait n.v.饵;小憩;置饵于 [ME<ON beita hunt or chase badger baiting 耍獾的游戏]

bald a.无毛的;单调的 [ME ballede, orig ’having a white blaze’, ball- ’white patch’]

bale v.灾难;不幸

balk v.中止;阻碍

ballad n.民谣;歌谣 [ME<OF balade<Prov balada dancing-song<balar to dance]

ballast n.压载物;压仓物 [16th c:<LG or Scand, of uncert orig]

ballerina n.芭蕾舞女 [It, fem of ballerino dancing-master<ballare dance<LL: BALL]

ballot n.投票用小球;投票

[(<Ita."小球 (ball)"因从前表示赞成时把小白球投入投票箱,反对时则投小黑球) cast a ~ (for (against) ┅)] 投票)

balmy a.温和的;芳香的 [BALM香油,镇定剂,安慰,芳香]

bamboozle v.欺骗;愚弄;使迷惑 [the Bamboo Curtain竹幕(中国大陆与西方世界在政治和意识形态上不同所形成的障碍;尤其 194]9[至1976年间)]

ban v.n.禁令;法规;逐出教门 [OE bannan summon <Gmc]

banal a.平凡的;陈腐的 [’compulsory’, ’common to all’,<F<ban(BAN)banality平凡,陈腐]

bandage n.绷带;蒙眼用布;包扎

bandanna n.大手帕 [prob Port<Hindi]

bandbox n.装帽纸盒;薄板盒

bandit n.强盗,盗贼,土匪;歹徒 [It. bandito (pl. -iti), pp. of bandire ban: BANISH驱逐]

bane n.毒;危害;毁灭(的原因) [Gambling was the ~ of his life. 赌博是他的致命伤.]

baneful a.有害的 [BANE毒,危害;毁灭(的原因)]

banish v.放逐;驱逐出境;忘忧 [ME<OE banir ult<Gmc]

banister n.栏杆小柱 [同baluster balustrade有小柱(baluster)的栏干bap小型卷式面包]

bankrupt n.a.v.破产;使破产 [BANK, L rumpere rupt- break]

banner n.v.旗;标志;大标题

banter n.嘲弄

baptism n.洗礼 [<ecclGk baptismos<baptizo BAPTIZE施行洗礼;取名]

barb n.倒钩;刺人的话 [ME<OF barbe<L barba beard barbed有刺的]

barbaric a.未开化的,野蛮作风的 [<L barbaricus<barbaros foreign]

barbarous a.野蛮的;异国语的 [orig of any foreign language or people:<Gk barbaros foreign babarity蛮行,残忍,粗野]

barbecue n.v.烤肉架;烤肉野餐 [Sp barbacoa<Haitian barbac wooden frame on posts]

barcarole n.船夫歌 [威尼斯运河平底舟(gondola)船歌 Barcelona 巴塞隆纳]

barge n.v.舢板;运输;蹒跚 [ME<OF perh<medL barica<Gk baris Egyptian boat]

bark v.吼叫;咳嗽;剥树皮 [同BARQUE ME<F prob<Prov barca<L barca ship’s boat]

barley n.大麦 [OE b lic(adj)<bere barley]

barm n.啤酒泡 [OE beorma barmy 充满酵母的;起泡沫的;笨的]

barn n.谷仓;巴安(断面单位) [perh<phrase ’as big as a barn’]

barometer n.气压计;晴雨表

baron n.男爵;大王 [ME<AF barun, OF baron<medL baro, -onis man]

baroque a.过分装饰的;俗丽的 [F(orig = ’irregular pearl’)<Port barroco]

barque n.咆哮;多桅帆船;树皮 [<L barca ship’s boat(<L."小船"→embark出航,搭乘;投入,从事]

barrack n.兵房;大而简陋建筑;驻扎 [app. <BORAK]

barrage n.弹雨;掩护炮火 [F<barrer(BAR)]

barren a.n.不妊的;不毛之地 [ME<AF barai(g)ne, OF barhaine etc]

barricade n.障碍物 [F<barrique cask<Sp barrica, rel to BARREL大桶;许多]

barrier n.栅栏;关卡;障碍 [ME<AF barrere, OF barriere]

barring prep.除...以外 [barrio (西班牙、波多黎各)地方行政区域;大城市之郊区]

barrister n.律师 [16th c:<BAR, perh after minister]

barrow n.手推车 [OE beorg<Gmc]

barter n.易货交易 [OF barater: BARRATOR使船主遭受损失的船长或船员;诉讼教唆犯;买卖圣职或官位者]

basal a.基础的;根本的

bash v.怒殴;猛烈的一击 [bang, smash, dash]

bashful a.害羞的;内向的 [obs bash(v), = ABASH]

bask v.取暖;曝日;沐浴于 [BATHE ABASK在阳光中,炉火旁(取暖)The old man was lying ~ in the sun]

bastard n.a.非嫡子;可怜的;异常的 [ME <OF <med.L bastardus, perh. <bastum pack-saddle]

baste v.殴打;公开责骂;涂油脂 [假缝,稀疏地缝布,衣服等;为防止烤焦在烤肉上涂调味酱]

bastille n.城堡;牢狱;巴斯蒂监狱 [bastir build: the fortress and prison in Paris, destroyed in 1789]

bastion n.城堡;设防地区 [F<It bastione<bastire build]

batch n.一炉(面包等);一组 [ME<OE b’cce<bacan BAKE]

bate v.压制;减弱 [BAIT = state of baited person]

Unit 5

bathos n.比小法;平凡而陈腐风格 [Gk, = depth]

baton n.警棒;指挥棒;接力棒 [F b on, baston ult<LL bastum stick]

bats a.神经不正常的;怪异的 [<phr. (have) bats in the belfry: BAT]

batten v.长肥 [ON batna get better<bati advantage]

batter v.n.以物易物;交换

battery n.殴打 [F batterie<batre, battre strike<L battuere]

battlement n.城墙牒口 [battlemented 有城垛的]

bauble n.美丽而无价值的装饰物 [ME<OF babel child’s toy]

bawd n.淫话;鸨母;妓女 [ME <OF baudetrot, baudestroyt procuress bawdy 淫秽的]

bawl v.n.大叫;叫卖;叫骂 [medL baulare bark, Icel baula]

bayou n.海湾;支流;河口 [Amer. F: c<Choctau bayuk]

bazaar n.市场;杂货市集;义卖 [Pers bazar, prob through Turk and It]

beacon n.v.信号塔;警告;照明引导 [OE beacn<WG]

beam n.v.杆;光线;放射;微笑 [OE beam tree<WG]

beat n.a.脉博;独家报导;疲倦的 [OE beatan<Gmc]

beatific a.祝福的 [F beatifique or L beatificus<beatus blessed]

beatitude n.至上的幸福;至福 [F beatitude or L beatitudo<beatus blessed]

beaver n.海狸;礼帽;下巴胡子 [work like a beaver勤奋地工作 eager beaver 勤奋的人]

bedeck v.装饰 [DECK (~ oneself)打扮,修饰<out>(用)装饰<out>(with);甲板]

bedizen v.俗丽地穿著或装饰 [BE-+obs dizen deck out]

bedlam n.疯狂行为;精神病院 [hospital of St Mary of Bethlehem in London]

bedraggle v.全身湿透;把衣服拖脏 [BE-+DRAGGLE(在泥中等)拖而弄脏;拖曳;下摆拖地]

beefy a.健壮的;结实的 [BEEF 牛肉;(人的)肌肉;身体的胖瘦,体重]

beet n.甜菜 [OE bete<L beta, perh of Celt orig]

beetle n.甲虫;木槌

befall v.发生;产生;降临 [BE-, feallan FALL) Evil befell him. 灾难临到他头上]

beget v.引起;产生 [OE begietan, formed as BE-+GET = procreate生育,生殖;产生]

begrudge v.羡慕;嫉妒 [GRUDGE]

beguile v.欺骗;诱骗 [BE-+obs guile to deceive beguiling欺骗的;消遣的]

behold v.看;(命令式)看呀 [BE-, haldan hold) lo and ~ 你瞧瞧 beholder n.目睹者]

beholden a.蒙恩的;负有义务的 [pp.(obs except in this use)of ())BEHOLD看; 看呀, = bound]

behoove v.理应;有益于 [HOOVE(兽医)鼓胀症 hoover 用吸尘器扫除]

belabor v.重打;辱骂

belated a.误期的 [pp. of obs belate delay(BE-, LATE)]

beleaguer v.围攻 [camp round (BE-, leger a camp) beleaguered 面临很多困难]

belie v.掩饰 [OE beleogan(BE-, leogan LIE)]

belittle v.轻视

belle n.美女;绝世美女 [F <L bella fem. of bellus beautiful]

bellicose a.好战的;好争吵的 [ME<L bellicosus<bellum war]

belligerent a.交战的 [L belligerare wage war<bellum war+gerere wage]

bellow v.吼叫声;咆哮 [ME: perh. rel. to BELL]

belly n.腹;胃;食欲;鼓胀 [OE belig (orig. = bag) <Gmc]

belongings n.pl.财产;附属物;家眷

bemoan v.悲叹 [BE-+MOAN 牢骚,悲叹,哀悼]

benediction n.祝福;恩赐 [ME<OF<L benedictio -onis<benedicere -dict- bless]

benefactor n.施主;捐助人 [ME<LL(BENEFIT)]

beneficial a.有益的;有利的;慈善的 [BENEFICE 圣俸(在英国国教为vicar或rector之收入)]

beneficiary n.受益人 [L beneficiarius(BENEFICE)]

benevolent a.慈善的;和蔼可亲的 [<L bene volens -entis well wishing benevolence仁爱;慈善]

benighted a.蒙昧的;被黑暗笼罩的 [obs benight 使陷入黑暗;使愚昧;使无知]

benign a.亲切的;良好的 [ME<OF benigne<bene well+- genus born benignity亲切,仁慈]

benison n.祝福 [ME<OF benein<L benedictio -onis]

benumb v.使麻痹;使昏迷不醒 [BE-, niman take]

bequeath v.遗赠;留传 [OE becwethan(BE-, cwethan say: cf QUOTH)bequest遗赠;遗产]

bequest n.遗赠;遗赠物 [ME<BE- + obs quiste<OE -cwiss, cwide saying]

berate v.痛骂 [BE-+RATE严斥,斥责,骂 严斥(人),谩骂(at)]

bereave v.夺取 [OE bereafian(BE-, REAVE掠夺;劫夺;窃夺]

bereft a.被剥夺的 [pp. of BEREAVE]

berserk a.疯狂的 [<bern- BEAR+serkr coat; go ~ 发狂send a person ~ 使人狂暴]

berth n.v.睡床;停泊处;停泊 [< BEAR 开花;结实(<OE "搬运")生儿女;具有,带有 +TH]

beseech v.恳求;哀恳 [ME<BE-+secan SEEK]

beset v.包围 [OE besettan<Gmc]

besiege v.围 [ME<assiege by substitution of BE-,<OF asegier<Rmc]

besmear v.涂;搽脏 [BE-, SMEAR)]

besmirch v.污;糟蹋 [BE-+ SMIRCH 弄脏;玷污;污点]

besom n.扫把 [OE besema]

bespeak v.指出 [OE bisprecan(BE-, SPEAK)]

bestial a.残忍的;野蛮的 [ME<OF<LL bestialis<bestia beast]

bestow v.赠与;利用 [ME<BE-+OE stow a place]

bestride v.跨骑 [OE bestridan]

betimes ad.早;及时;不久;有时 [ME<obs betime(BY, TIME)]

betoken v.表示 [OE(BE-, tacnian signify: TOKEN记号;证据(of);纪念品]

betray v.背叛;出卖;泄露 [ME<obs tray, ult<L tradere hand over]

betroth v.订婚 [ME<trouthe, TRUTH, later assim to TROTH真实,誓言;婚约]

beverage n.饮料 [ME<OF bevrage, ult<L bibere drink]

bevy n.一群鸟;一群人

beware v.注意;小心;警戒 [Beware of pickpockets. 谨防扒手 BE + WARE小心;器具;货物]

bewilder v.使为难,使不知所措 [BE- + obs. wilder lose one’s way]

bewitch v.迷惑;陶醉 [OE wiccian enchant<wicca WITCH 女巫;迷人的女人;狐狸精]

bias n.n.斜线;成见,心里的倾向

bibliography n.文献学;参考书目 [bibliographie<modL bibliographia<Gk(BIBLE, -GRAPHY)]

bibliophile n.珍爱藏书者;藏书家 [F bibliophile(BIBLIO-, -PHILE)]

bibulous a.好饮水的;吸水的 [L bibulus freely drinking<bibere drink]

bicameral a.两院制的 [BI-+L camera chamber]

bicker v.n.插嘴;潺潺流;闪烁 [ME biker, beker]

bide v.居住;留;等待;忍受 [OE bidan <Gmc ~one’s time 等待机会]

biennial a.两年一次的 [L biennis(BI-, annus year)]

bifurcate a.分为两部分 [medL bifurcare<L bifurcus two-forked(BI-, furca fork)]

bigotry n.顽固 [BIGOT 顽固者,乖僻的人]

bilateral a.两边的;左右对称的

bile n.胆汁;不开心;脾气 [F<L bilis biliary 胆汁的;输送胆汁的]

bilge n.船底;船底的污垢 [prob var of BULGE(<L."袋")鼓起,凸出<out>]

bilingual a.能说两种语言的 [L bilinguis(BI-, lingua tongue)]

bilious a.患胆病的;坏脾气的 [L biliosus<bilis bile]

bilk v.欺骗;挫折;使人失望 [perh = BALK: (17th c) = spoil one’s opponent’s score]

billingsgate n.下流话

bin n.储藏箱;收入收藏室 [OE bin(n), binne]

binary a.二进位的;二元的 [LL binarius <bini two together]

binge n.狂闹 [prob orig dial, = soak浸泡(在液体中)吸收,浴于(阳光)中]

bionomics n.生态学 [BIO- after ECONOMICS]

biopsy n.活体检查法 [F biopsie<Gk bios life+opsis sight, after necropsy验尸]

biosphere n.生物圈 [BIO-, SPHERE(<G."球")球;天体;(活动、知识等)范围,领域]

biped n.两足动物 [L bipes -edis(BI-, pes pedis foot)]

bisect v.分为两断;(数)平分 [BI- + L secare sect- cut]

bison n.北美野牛;欧洲野牛 [ME <L <Gmc 同aurochs)]

bit n.片刻;小钱币;十二分半 [~s of glass玻璃碎片a ~ of hope一点希望on the bit使马快奔]

bitch n.母狗;妓女;婊子

bivouac n.v.野营;露营地 [F, prob. <Swiss G Beiwacht additional guard at night]

bizarre a.古怪的 [F, = handsome, brave,<Sp & Port bizarro<Basque bizarra beard]

blab v.多嘴的人

blackmail n.勒索 [BLACK+obs mail rent, OE mal<ON m l agreement]

blade n.叶;刃;扁平的部份;荡子

blanch v.使变白 [ME<OF blanchir<blanc white, BLANK空白的;空虚的;完全的]

bland a.温柔的;殷勤的 [L blandus soft, smooth]

blandish v.逢迎 [<L blandus soft, smooth. blandishment n.奉承,逢迎 Despite his ~s, the young lady rejected his] [companionship.]

blare v.响声 [ME<MDu blaren, bleren, imit]

blarney n.恭维话 [Blarney, an Irish castle near Cork with a stone said to confer a cajoling tongue on whoever kisses it]

blase a.厌烦于享乐或人生的

blasphemy n.骂神;冒渎;不敬;咒骂 [ME<OF blasfemie<ecclL<Gk blasphemia slander, blasphemy blasphemous 不敬神的 blaspheme 亵渎];[ 说不恭敬的话

blatant a.喧哗的;炫耀的 [a word used by Spenser(1596), perh after Sc blatand = bleating bleat 咩地叫;抱怨地说]

blazon v.宣布;用纹章装饰 [ME<OF blason shield;verb also<BLAZE 传播;火焰;烈火地狱]

bleach v.n.漂白 [bleachers 露天座位]

bleak a.寒冷的;荒凉的 [ME prob<ON bleikja, OHG bleicha<Gmc]

bleed v.流血;流出树液;榨钱 [OE bledan <Gmc]

blemish n.v.伤;污点;缺点;损伤 [ME<OF ble(s)mir(-ISH)make pale, prob of Gmc orig]

blench v.退缩;变白;使变白 [ME<OE blencan, ult<Gmc]

blend v.混杂;混合

[~ mayonnaise with other ingredients把蛋黄酱与其他材料混合 The colors of the rainbow ~ into one anothe]r虹的色彩交融调和

bless v.神圣化;祈福 [OE bloedsian, <blod blood(hence mark with blood, consecrate)]

blight n.v.障害;阴影;枯凋;挫折 [blighted毁灭的;受虫害的]

blink v.闪烁 [partly var of blenk = BLENCH, partly<MDu blinken shine]

bliss n.极乐;极大幸福;喜悦 [OE bliths, bliss <blithiz BLITHE: sense infl. by BLESS]

blithe a.快乐的;无忧无虑的

blitz n.v.闪击战;以闪击战攻击 [abbr of BLITZKRIEG(<德语)= blitz]

blizzard n.大风雪;突发事件 [US ’violent blow’(1829), ’snowstorm’(1859)]

bloat v.n.熏制;膨胀;自负 [obs. bloat swollen, soft and wet, perh. <ON blautr soaked, flabby]

bloated a.发胀的;傲慢的 [a ~ face 浮肿的脸 ~ with (from) overeating 因吃得太多而浮胖 a ~ politician 自大的政客 He is ~ with] [pride 他狂妄自大]

blockade n.v.封锁;堵塞;堵塞 [BLOCK+-ADE, prob after ambuscade= ambush]

blond a.金发男人 [ME <F <med.L blondus, blundus yellow, perh. of Gmc orig.]

bloom n.花,开花;鲜美;红润 [OE bloma]

blossom n.花;群花;开花期,花季 [OE blostm(a) prob. formed as BLOOM]

blot n.v.污痕;弱点;抹脏;吸干 [ME prob. <Scand.: c<Icel. blettr spot, stain]

blotch n.v.污点;斑点;弄脏 [17th c:<plotch and BLOT(墨水)污渍 blotchy满是疙瘩的]

bloted a.肿胀的

blotto a.烂醉的 [20th c: perh<BLOT]

blouse n.罩衫

blowhard n.吹牛大家

bludgeon n.v.棍棒;强迫;胁迫;恫吓 [~ a person to death 把某人打死 ~ a person into going along 强迫某人同行]

blueprint n.蓝图;设计图

bluestocking n.女学者;醉心文学的女人 [from the (less formal) blue stockings worn by one man at a literary society meeting c.1750]

bluff v.虚张声势

blunder v.犯错误 [ME prob<Scand: cf MSw blundra shut the eyes]

blunt a.钝的;粗卤的;生硬的 [blunge 混合(泥土与水等);参水拌]

blur v.使乌黑;变模糊 [16th c: perh rel to BLEAR<眼睛>花的;朦胧的,模糊不清的]

blurt v.滑口说出 [In his anger he ~ed out the secret 他在生气之下脱口说出了秘密]




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